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The Princeton Seminary Bulletin 

Vol. XL PRINCETON, N.J, WINTER 1946 No. 3 


A S every alumnus of the Seminary knows, Princeton Junction is located three 
-*^miles from Princeton. In order to go by rail from Princeton to any point 
north, south, east or west, the traveller must take the “dinky” to Princeton Junc- 
tion and then wait for his train. Fortunately these waiting periods are usually 
not very long, as the main line trains of the Pennsylvania Railroad are many in 
number, and many of them stop. Nevertheless, every Princeton alumnus has 
spent countless hours of his life at Princeton Junction. 

One of our distinguished alumni, Doctor Silas Evans of the Class of 1901, 
was President for many years of Ripon College, an educational institution of 
real distinction located about seventy-five miles northwest of Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin. To get about the state from Ripon one had to go to Horicon Junction and 
wait interminably. On one occasion President Evans remarked that he had figured 
out that he had spent one-eighth of his life in Horicon Junction! 

That is a dismal thought — if you have ever seen Horicon Junction! Princeton 
Junction is bad enough, but Horicon Junction (at least when I saw it in 1915) 
was really depressing. A tiny waiting room — drab, cheerless, dingy; outside the 
station one saw only railroad tracks and three forlorn houses. In prospect one 
would feel dreary indeed if he were sentenced to spend one-eighth of his life in 
Horicon Junction. 

But not Silas Evans! He made a point of getting acquainted with his fellow 
travellers, or fellow exiles, realizing that “there is nothing so interesting in life 
as life itself.” He learned of their interests, their hopes, their fears, their prob- 
lems. He met some of the most interesting people in the world at Horicon Junc- 
tion! He got some of his best ideas, he did some of his best counselling (an art 
which is at its best when one is unhurried and unharried) in Horicon Junction. 
He carried into actual practice a “Sermon to Travellers” written by a homespun 
poet many years ago. I can only recall snatches of it : 

“Don’t be a clam when you travel, 

Don’t sit like a mute in your seat, 

There’s a heap of good tales will unravel 
If you chat with the ones that you meet. 

For you’ll benefit if 
You don’t act like a stiff 



With the folks that you meet on the cars. 
Or at Princeton Junction! 

When Dr. Evans, on occasions, found no one at Horicon Junction, he was 
never lonely or restless for he had in his pocket or grip dissertations by Plato or 
Aristotle or Saint Paul. With no telephones or doorbells to answer, no appoint- 
ments to fulfill, no meetings to attend, no organizations to address, he could 
quietly concentrate, and commune with the great minds of all time. He did some 
of his best thinking, some of his best writing, in Horicon Junction! And he did 
it all on marginal time, time he might otherwise have wasted. 

Perhaps the greatest conflict in the minister’s life is his fight for time to study. 
When a student in a Seminary he is taught by professors speaking with a straight 
face, that when he becomes pastor of a church he must go to his study every morn- 
ing at eight and remain there in uninterrupted study until twelve or one o’clock. 
That is the ideal, and congregations should cooperate more in making this pos- 
sible for the ministers. But how hard it is to carry through such a program! 
And how difficult to find a stretch of time for the reading of a book ! Those long 
stretches of time never come, except perhaps between midnight and two or three 
in the morning, when every God fearing man ought to be asleep. When, then, 
shall a man do the reading he ought to do? He can do it only on marginal time. 

Doctor Robert E. Speer served as Secretary of the Board of Foreign Missions 
of our Church for almost fifty years. During that time he commuted daily to 
New York City. His life was a full one. He had little leisure for reading. How 
was he able, then, through all those years, to read and really read, on the average 
of one hundred and fifty worthwhile books a year? By merely making good use 
of odd moments. By always having some good reading with him on the com- 
muter’s train, or at Horicon Junction, or at Princeton Junction. 

We are always looking forward to that excellent sermon or article we are 
going to write when we have the time. We are forever promising ourselves to 
write that letter, now six months overdue, when the favorable opportunity pre- 
sents itself. We feel quite righteous as we contemplate the great good we are 
going to do when the time is propitious and we get into more congenial surround- 
ings. “Oh, the things I will do in my next charge !” Let us start doing them now, 
on the time we spend in Horicon Junction. 



Edward H. Roberts, Editor 

Edward J. Jurji, Book Review Editor 

Committee on Publications 

Kenneth S. Gapp 
Edward J. Jurji 

John A. Mackay 

Edward H. Roberts 

Bruce M. Metzger 
Lefferts A. Loetscher 
Edna Hatfield 
Hugh T. Kerr, Chairman 




Bela Vasady 

T HE deepest meaning of a commence- 
ment day is paradoxical. The mo- 
ments of both attainment and a new be- 
ginning are represented therein. And it 
is my belief that if we were to peer into 
the depths of the life of a Christian man, 
and especially that of a preacher and theo- 
logian, we would discover that basically 
it is nothing more than an unceasing se- 
ries of commencement days. A Christian 
always realizes that of his own strength 
he can no more make amends for his past 
shortcomings, that his present status is 
reached only through repentance, and that 
he is but a pilgrim, a homo viator, chris- 
tianus designatus, a man who has not yet 
attained his goal but, making use of the 
resources of the grace of God, is ever 
striving for perfection. The day of his 
final salvation is yet in the offing. That is 
the reason why he must make new deci- 
sions again and again, “forgetting those 
things that are behind, and reaching forth 
unto those things which are before,” and 
“press toward the mark for the prize of 
the high calling of God in Christ Jesus,” 
Phil. 3:13. Thus in the pattern of the 
Christian mode of living and thinking the 
Church, preaching, and theology equally 
become an endless series of commence- 
ment days. 

Let us consider first the Church. “Birds 
of a feather flock together,” says an old 
proverb. I, however, believe that a Swiss 
theologian saw more deeply when he said, 
“Tell me what you think of the Church 
and I shall tell you who you are.” For it 
is not everyone who lives within the 
Church, not everyone who goes to Church, 
who thinks or feels properly about that in- 
stitution. There are those who consider 

the Church simply as a social club where 
they can conventionally fulfill the wishes 
and whims created by their social in- 
stincts. Others consider the Church as a 
“ticket office” and believe that by paying 
their church dues or making offerings 
they can purchase their tickets to Heaven ; 
and if they should like to return to this 
land of earthly pleasures, they may even 
hope for the possibility of a round-trip 
ticket. Still others consider the Church as 
a spring-board and think that through 
their continued practice of jumping from 
this board they can throw themselves over 
into the eternal land of “Paradise Lost.” 
Then, there are those who go to church 
for their spiritual enjoyment. When they 
sit in the church pews they think that they 
can assume a “balcony attitude” — because 
everything that takes place during the 
service is for their pleasure. They fail to 
realize the significance of true worship 
and that its reality in their lives is evi- 
denced when they step through the church 
doors into the world to bear witness by 
their acts to the decisions which were 
made while they heard the Word of the 
living God. Finally, there are those who 
simply consider the Church as an outward 
institution through which salvation can 
be obtained, and think that to be born 
into the Church is sufficient guarantee, 
even without rebirth, for their salvation. 
Perhaps it is not necessary to mention 
that we can find this distorted belief, first 
of all, among the Roman Catholics, but it 
can also be found frequently among the 
adherents of the state-subsidized, Conti- 
nental Protestant churches. 

The aforementioned interpretations of 
the Church are especially erroneous be- 



cause they disregard the fact that the 
Church can only be considered as a living 
organism, and that this living organism 
did not come into being by human initia- 
tive, individual or social, but by the crea- 
tive act of God, and is thus “built upon 
the foundation of the apostles and proph- 
ets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief 
corner stone, in whom all the building 
fitly framed together groweth unto an 
holy temple in the Lord, in whom ye also 
are builded together for an habitation of 
God through the Spirit. ,, (Eph. 2:20-22.) 

This dynamic aspect of the Church, 
or rather of the community comprising 
the Church, which is acted upon from 
above, is very appropriately interpreted 
in the 54th question and answer of the 
Heidelberg Catechism where, in answer 
to the question “What dost thou believe 
concerning the Holy Catholic Church of 
Christ ?” it is stated, “That the Son of 
God from the beginning to the end of the 
world, gathers, defends, and preserves to 
himself by his Spirit and Word, out of 
the whole human race, a Church chosen 
to everlasting life, agreeing in true faith ; 
and that I am and forever shall remain, a 
living member thereof.” During the read- 
ing of this answer we can envision the 
ceaseless recruiting begun and continued 
by Divine initiative through the Word and 
Holy Spirit from the beginning of the 
world unto its end. We can realize that 
the members of this spiritual army did 
not gather under the banner of Christ in 
order to guarantee their own salvation, 
but only because they consider the cause 
of God as ultimately the only true cause, 
and know and feel what it is to have God, 
through His Word and Holy Spirit, gath- 
er, defend and preserve the Church for 
Himself as his chosen people. “Fecisti nos 
ad te,” said Augustine. (Thou hast made 
us for Thyself.) The Church exists so that 
in it and through it by personal decisions 
and new beginnings we may daily learn 

that “of God, and through God, and to 
God, are all things. To him be the glory 
forever.” (Rom. 11 136. ) 

But by what means does God’s recruit- 
ing transpire? What makes our life a 
perpetual commencement agreeable to God 
and marked with obedient decisions ? What 
qualifies us to be members of the Church ? 
It is God’s Word and Holy Spirit as they 
cooperatively and simultaneously move, 
form, and urge us to make decisions while 
the Word of God is being proclaimed. 
“Est autem ecclesia societas fidelium, in 
qua evangelium recte docetur.” The 
preaching of the gospel is God’s chosen 
weapon given to the ministry of His 
Church. And I know no one who can be 
more grateful than he who can say that 
God called him to preach the Word. Thus 
the Apostle Paul cries, “Now thanks be 
unto God who always causeth us to tri- 
umph in Christ, and maketh manifest the 
savor of his knowledge by us in every 
place.” (2 Cor. 2:14.) Do you know what 
happens when the Word is preached? 
God’s eternal predestination is realized. 
Therefore the Apostle, in continuing, says 
that the preacher of the Word is nothing 
else than a “sweet savor of Christ unto 
God in them that are saved and in them 
that perish ; to the one we are the savor of 
death to death ; and to the other the savor 
of life unto life.” (2 Cor. 15:16.) Is it 
a wonder, therefore, that upon seeing the 
marvelous and terrific significance of this 
ministration the Apostle immediately asks, 
“And who is sufficient for these things?” 
(2 Cor. 15:16.) 

My dear friends, the secret of good 
preaching lies in our daily use of this 
question and the statement of our reply 
thereto. When we believe that the effec- 
tive preaching of the gospel is nothing 
other than the skillful application of ex- 
egetical, homiletical, and pastoral rules, we 
erroneously answer this question because 
we expect to qualify ourselves for the 



preaching of the gospel through our own 
energy and ingenuity. In the meantime we 
forget that the true preaching of the 
Word, the true “sermo,” is that which is 
“conceptus de Spiritu Sancto,” conceived 
by the Holy Spirit. I cannot refrain from 
relating a humorous, but instructive anec- 
dote. A teacher of religion tried to make 
his pupils understand the reality of di- 
vine providence, and for this purpose he 
thought up a brief story: A man was 
hurrying along the street when an ap- 
proaching automobile struck him and ran 
over him. But, wonder of wonders, the 
man escaped injury because he fell be- 
tween the wheels of the car, not under 
them, and the car passed over him. “Well, 
children, to what could he attribute this ?” 
asked the teacher. “To coincidence,” re- 
plied one child. The teacher, seeing that 
none of the children thought of Divine 
providence, continued: The man walked 
on and pretty soon another auto knocked 
him down, but again he escaped injury. 
“What could be the reason for this, chil- 
dren?” he asked. Again a child volun- 
teered, “The man was just plain lucky.” 
The teacher repeated the incident for a 
third time. The man was again walking, 
he was struck again, but again suffered 
no injury. “Well, children, how do you 
explain this ?” asked the teacher who was 
now certain that he would get no reply 
other than that of Divine providence. And 
again a child volunteered to answer. 
“Teacher, they say that practice makes 
perfect,” was the astounding reply. 

Now, let me ask you : Is it true that 
human practice makes us masters of the 
preaching of the gospel ? I believe it would 
be a half-truth if we replied with a simple 
“yes” or “no.” For although in the proc- 
ess of his daily preparation and practice 
the preacher may attain a higher degree 
of perfection, he should never forget that 
he cannot become an effective preacher, 
a “sweet savor of Christ unto God” by 

his own strength, skill and practice, but 
only by the qualifying grace of the Holy 
Spirit. So the Reformers taught when 
they spoke of the “testimonium Spiritus 
Sancti internum,” i.e., the inner testimony 
of the Holy Spirit. The preaching of the 
Word, therefore, wherever and whenever 
that is the true ministry of the gospel, 
must be considered as the miraculous act 
of the saving grace of God. 

I have no time to go into detail describ- 
ing how Christian preaching should not 
be conceived. I merely refer to the fact 
that the aim of true preaching cannot be 
an aesthetic or spiritual entertainment; 
nor is it an attempt to invoke religious 
experience through human means, nor 
mere instruction or the exposition of his- 
torical facts, or mere enumeration of mor- 
al precepts. The purpose of true preach- 
ing is something far different. It endeav- 
ors to evoke an existential decision from 
the hearers of the Word through the in- 
termingling functions of witness-bearing 
and protesting. It is the duty of the 
preacher to bear repeated testimony to 
the historical facts of the Gospel and to 
its eternal truths. But he cannot execute 
this function of witness-bearing without 
at the same time protesting against false 
human philosophy and heresy. In the real 
preaching of the Word there is no wit- 
ness-bearing without protesting and no 
protesting without witness-bearing. It is 
for this reason that the Epistle written to 
the Hebrews calls the Word of God a 
weapon sharper than a two-edged sword 
(4:12), and that at the time of his call 
Jeremiah heard the words, “Behold, I 
have put my words in thy mouth. See, I 
have this day set thee over the nations and 
over the kingdoms to root out and to pull 
down, and to destroy and to throw down 
— (this apparently being the command to 
protest) — to build and to plant,” — and 
building and planting can only be done 
by bearing witness. (Jer. 1 :g , 10.) 



But we are just arriving at the most 
important condition of effective preach- 
ing. Who is he who can bear testimony to 
the revealed truths? And who is the one 
who can protest uncompromisingly and 
through his protesting can “cast down 
imaginations, and every high thing that ex- 
alteth itself against the knowledge of God, 
and bring into captivity every thought to 
the obedience of Christ”? (2 Cor. 10:5.) 
Only he who has already heard the wit- 
nessing and protesting Word of God 
spoken repeatedly to him when he has 
been driven to a willingness to study and 
apprehend the revealed truths of that 
Holy Book. Only he who proves to be 
sufficiently humble and willing and thus 
will not be as the “many who corrupt the 
Word of God, but as of sincerity, but as 
of God, in the sight of God (he) speaks 
in Christ.” (2 Cor. 2:17.) 

Thus, dear friends, we are approximat- 
ing the proper comprehension of the value 
of theology. Because theology is not phi- 
losophy or excellency of speech or of wis- 
dom ; because it is not a closed system of 
human thought; and because the theo- 
logian is anything but “an abstraction 
moving on two legs,” theology has eternal 
worth. It is my conviction that one of the 
factors contributing to the secularization 
of American Protestantism is the sad 
truth that many substituted their own re- 
ligious philosophy for the theology of the 
Word and superimposed the methods of 
philosophy in the sphere of theology. Let 
us render philosophy its due regard, but 
let us remember that we respect it most 
when we leave it within its natural boun- 
daries, within its scientific limits, and do 
not attempt to smuggle its methods into 
other realms. In my country there is a 
somewhat humorous description of the 
various types of national mentality illus- 
trated by reference to boredom and phi- 
losophy. According to the description, 
boredom drives an ever-busy American to 

commit suicide; it would drive a French- 
man to kill the man who bdres him; for 
a German even boredom is philosophy; 
and for a Hungarian philosophy is bore- 
dom. Now, allow me to assert that there 
must be a certain holy boredom, or even 
an attitude of holy dissatisfaction when- 
ever the representatives of a secularized 
theology — men whose speech and preach- 
ing is with enticing words of man’s wis- 
dom (I Cor. 2:4) — seek to satisfy us 
with mere human philosophy when we 
know that the task of preaching and the 
science of theology which is subservient 
to it demand from us something entirely 
different, a humble obedience to the wit- 
ness-bearing and protestations of the Word 
of God. And only if we encounter and 
appropriate these two functions of the 
Word of God can we become deeper theo- 
logians and better preachers. In my eyes 
the objective of theology as a science is 
the same as that of preaching, the Word 
of God to whose ministry we are called. 
And for this reason the method of theol- 
ogy is the same as that of preaching, 
namely, the joint act of witness-bearing 
and protesting. But while in preaching 
the functions of witness-bearing and pro- 
testing are united in a single existential 
act, in an act which involves the entire 
man with all his faculties, in theology, 
which moves in the sphere of reflec- 
tion, these two functions are delineated 
more precisely and systematically. Theol- 
ogy makes good use of the methods of 
other sciences, of induction, deduction, and 
reduction, of analysis and synthesis, but 
she can make use of them only as ends 
subservient to her primordial purpose, to 
witness-bearing and protesting. One can- 
not be a good preacher without continually 
reverting to the quarry of Scripture out 
of which the rocks of sound theology are 
hewn. On the other hand, a theologian 
moving in the sphere of reflection can 
remain a scholar whose words are “of 



sincerity, of God, in the sight of God, 
speaking in Christ,” only if he proves him- 
self to be a humble servant of the Word 
who recurrently participates in the exis- 
tential act of preaching so that his theol- 
ogy does not become pedantic and an aca- 
demic pastime. 

Thus it becomes clear that both preach- 
ing and theology are functions of the 
Church, and if you as Christian men prove 
yourselves to be useful servants, your 
preaching and theology will have become 
an unceasing series of commencement 
days. Woe unto that young man who on 
his commencement day, while reflecting 
upon his academic accomplishments, is 
tempted to say to himself, “Soul, thou 
hast much goods laid up for many years ; 
take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry.” 
(Luke 12:19.) The significance of Com- 
mencement Day for you should not be 
the end of ingathering, but rather a new 
beginning of seed sowing which leads in- 
creasingly to richer harvests. 

Finally, let me call your attention to 
one more concern. When the Allied troops 
landed in Africa, Churchill sent a mes- 
sage to the soldiers saying, “This is only 
the end of the beginning and not yet the 
beginning of the end.” And when the 
Sicilian landings were accomplished, Pres- 
ident Roosevelt commented, “This is al- 
ready the beginning of the end.” During 
the war when bombs exploded around us 
and buildings were blasted above us, and 
hunger and pestilences appeared every- 
where, many on the Continent thought 
that the end had come, the end of the 

world itself. And yet, if they had glanced 
into the Word, they would have learned 
that all this misery is only the beginning 
of sorrows. Before the real end, God’s 
own people, not one or another nation, 
must suffer and become hated by all other 
people for His name’s sake. “And because 
iniquity shall abound, the love of many 
shall wax cold. But he that shall endure 
unto the end, the same shall be saved. And 
this gospel of the kingdom shall be 
preached in all the world for a witness 
unto all nations. And then shall the end 
come.” (Matt. 24:12-14.) 

In these days the notion of one world 
is often the object of our aspirations. Do 
you know when this will be realized ? The 
Scriptures have an answer. That happy 
day will dawn when the gospel shall have 
been proclaimed in all the world. Neither 
with “push-button” wars, nor with “push- 
button” peace treaties, nor even with com- 
promised peace treaties can the one world 
idea be achieved. It can only be realized 
by God’s grace as the consummation of a 
series of commencement days in the life 
of the Church through its preaching and 
theology. “Go ye therefore and teach all 
nations . . . teaching them to observe all 
things whatsoever I have commanded you ; 
and, lo, I am with you always, even unto 
the end of the world.” (Matt. 28:19, 20.) 
Let us therefore celebrate the hallowed 
significance of commencement each day 
throughout our pilgrimage as preachers 
and theologians, according to the com- 
mandment of our Lord. 


It is proposed to inaugurate in 1947 
an Institute of Ecumenics. This Institute 
is designed to deal with the major fron- 
tier problems which confront the Chris- 
tian Church in its missionary program 

and world-wide relations. It will meet 
for one week immediately following the 
Institute of Theology, the dates being 
July 21 to July 25. 




Stuart Nye Hutchison 

T HE Epistle to the Hebrews was an 
effort to reconcile the Jews who had 
become Christians to the passing of their 
ancestral faith. These men and women 
had professed Christianity. They had ac- 
cepted Jesus as the long-expected Mes- 
siah. But they were still intensely loyal 
to the traditions of their race. There were 
times, in spite of the new and radiant 
hope that had come to them, when they 
were sad. They had been reared to honor 
with all their hearts the teachings of the 
prophets, which to them had always been 
the final oracles of God. 

Now the person and teachings of Jesus 
had superseded those of the fathers. Some- 
thing new and wonderful had come to 
them, and they were glad. But they were 
sorrowful, too, as they thought of all they 
must give up to realize it. 

Perhaps some of you can remember 
years ago when your father decided to 
build a new house. The family was grow- 
ing and larger quarters were necessary. 
The old home that so long had sheltered 
the household was no longer adequate. 
But when it came time to leave there was 
a pang of sadness in your hearts. You 
thought of the association of that dear old 
house ; of the good times there ; of the lit- 
tle children who had laughed and played 
there; and of all the memories of the 
years there. You pleaded that it might 
remain. But your father knew better. He 
showed you it was no longer sufficient. 
He promised you the new house would 
stand on the old foundations, and much of 
the old material would be used in con- 
structing it, and you would have a better 
dwelling place than the old. 

If you have experienced, or can imag- 

ine, a situation such as I have here pic- 
tured, you can in a measure appreciate 
what these Jewish Christians were pass- 
ing through. They loved the old house. 
For centuries it had sheltered their race. 
Every nook and corner of it was dear to 

In the music room David had sung to 
the accompaniment of the harp. There 
had been heard the voices of Asaph, and 
Miriam, and Deborah. In the prophet’s 
chamber Elijah had slept, and Elisha, and 
Isaiah and Amos, and many another mes- 
senger of God who had tarried there on 
his way. 

At the family altar had presided Abra- 
ham and Moses and Samuel and Nehe- 
miah. On its walls hung the trophies of 
her warrior sons, Joshua and Samson and 
Shamgar and David. 

In those ancient halls the love of Han- 
nah, and Ruth and Esther had blossomed 
and left behind its eternal fragrance. 

Is it any wonder that they were re- 
luctant to leave it, that memory and senti- 
ment clung round it still? But the apostle 
tells them that the old house is no longer 
a safe habitation, that another dwelling is 
to be built on the old foundations, and 
that there they are to abide forever. 

“It signifieth the removing of those 
things that are shaken, as of things that 
are made, that those things which cannot 
be shaken may remain.” These words, 
written for a situation in the second cen- 
tury, are pertinent and comforting for 
that through which the Church is passing 
now. We have only to look about us to 
know that the world is in the midst of 
cataclysmic changes. Old institutions, old 
doctrines, old values, old opinions, dear 



as life itself to our fathers, are being 
weighed in the balance, and many of 
them are going into the discard. To all of 
us, there comes at times the question, “Is 
everything that was precious to our fath- 
ers, everything that was dear to us, to go ?” 

Where shall we find an answer to our 
question — where but in these words of 
the Epistle to the Hebrews we have just 
quoted, which have explained every other 
crisis through which the Church has 
passed ? 

Let us remind ourselves of a few of 
the changes through which the thinking 
of the world is passing. First that which 
was once called security is gone. 

In one of our universities a question- 
naire was submitted a few years ago to the 
members of the graduating class, in which 
was this question: “What most of all do 
you desire in life The answers came in 
many forms. Behind almost all of them 
was the wish for security. 

Most of us who are older have been 
striving for the same goal. We have for 
example saved as we went along, and tried 
to invest wisely all the time thinking of 
some quiet harbor to which we could re- 
tire in the evening of life with our loved 
ones and our memories. Where now is 
that security for which we planned? 

But is its passing so great a misfor- 
tune? Shakespeare in “Macbeth” put into 
the lips of Hecate these words which are 
eternally true : “Security is mortal’s chief- 
est enemy.” 

An eagle in a cage has security, but 
that is not the life for which an eagle was 
created. Taking away our temporal secur- 
ity is like opening the door of his cage 
to an imprisoned bird. The soul is set 
free to range the far distances of faith 
and to discover new lands of promise, 
and it was that for which we were created. 

Again, humanism, that philosophy based 
upon the all-sufficiency of man, which has 
been the only belief of millions of men 

and women of our day, has been swept 
into the discard by the events of this 
tragic era. “For Science,” said the mod- 
ernist, “nothing is impossible, and educa- 
tion can cure all the ills of mankind. What 
is the use of God?” 

So the humanist dropped the Pilot and 
set out to sail the seas alone. But Science 
has failed him, and he has learned through 
tragic experience that education alone can- 
not save man from his own depravity. 
The storm has come and he does not 
know the way. Once more he is seeking 
wistfully for the Pilot whom he dropped 
back yonder. 

Another barrier in the way of the com- 
ing of the Kingdom which the Providence 
of God is removing is intolerant pride of 
race and clan. The war just ended was 
started on the assumption that one race 
alone was fitted to rule the earth. 

If we are frank most of us will con- 
fess that there has always been in us some 
of this feeling as we have thought of other 
races or of other classes in our own or 
other lands. But humanity is on the march. 
Not only has Hitler’s impudent assumption 
that one people is superior to all others 
been discounted, but many of our own 
cherished convictions, we have discovered, 
are no longer tenable. 

Donald Hankey wrote some lines con- 
cerning the London Cockneys in the First 
World War which one remembers. These 
men were, many of them, the problem of 
the police and the despair of society. Then 
the war came and the empire needed ev- 
ery man : they took these young men, of 
whom no one expected anything, and put 
them in uniform and taught them to obey, 
and turned their faces toward the stars, 
and the world knows the story. 

Shoulder to shoulder with the men of 
Oxford and Cambridge and Edinburgh 
they wrote their names in glory on every 
battlefield of the war. There was a great- 



ness in their souls that forever erased the 
social limitations which had been set for 

These days have quickened the social 
consciousness, and widened the horizon 
of us all. A generation ago we spoke of 
China and the Chinese with smug com- 
placency. Now China is an honored mem- 
ber of the family of nations, and her peo- 
ple are the bravest of the brave. Perhaps 
again a star is to rise in the East to point 
a seeking, sorrowing world to the Christ. 

Again the sectarian lines which have 
retarded the progress of Protestantism 
are being obliterated by the flood which 
has come upon the earth. 

We in America, with our sadly divided 
Church, are being driven, in spite of our- 
selves, to a realization of how inconse- 
quential are the opinions that separate 
us, and how supremely important is the 
one great truth that unites us. As one of 
our great Protestant leaders put it : “When 
we talk about what we believe we differ; 
but when we ask the question : ‘In whom 
do we believe?’ we are all one.” 

To the advancing powers of paganism 
and of superstition we must present a 
united front if we are to win in the titanic 
struggle with the forces of darkness. 
What is it that remains? 

In one of Mrs. Humphrey Ward’s 
books she tells of a young man who had 
been reading Voltaire. Absorbed in his 
book “The Contradictions of the Bible” 
he sees the walls of Christian faith fall- 
ing about his ears and, throwing back his 
head, he laughs. Voltaire has made an end 
of all that superstition. But suddenly he 
lifts his head as he remembers that Vol- 
taire has been dead for a hundred years. 
He turns his eyes to the window and sees 
yonder a great Christian Church. How 
vain now seems the mockery of the long- 
dead Scorner as he stands face to face 
with the living Christ. 

“Crowns and thrones may perish, 
Kingdoms rise and wane, 

But the Church of Jesus 
Constant will remain.” 

A young marine in New Guinea wrote 
home, “I never had much interest in mis- 
sions, perhaps because I knew so little 
about them. But I have seen these noble 
men and women and what they have done 
with these ignorant savages. I tell you, 
it is not what we have, battle-wagons, and 
tanks, and B-29S that will save the world. 
It is what they have, and if God spares 
my life till the war is over I am coming 
out to join them.” 

What does this age ask in a Christian 
minister who is effectively to serve his 
generation by the will of God? 

First, of course, he must be a man of 
God. As he looks out on suffering hu- 
manity the words of Christ must be his 
watchword: “For their sakes I sanctify 
myself.” The Christian ministry can never 
rise higher than its source — the life that 
is hid with Christ in God. 

Second, the age is calling for men with 
evangelistic fervor. We who are older 
can remember the mass evangelistic move- 
ments of several decades ago, led by men 
like Sunday, Chapman, and Gipsy Smith ! 
The day of this form of effort is past. 
We are coming back to the method of 
Christ, who dealt with souls individually, 
as with Nicodemus and the woman at the 

Of Andrew it is written, “He first find- 
eth his own brother Simon, and saith 
unto him, ‘We have found the Messiah.’ ” 

In the speaker’s church we have an 
organization such as is quite common in 
the Presbyterian Church U. S. It is a 
little group of men, doctors, merchants, 
bankers, about fifteen in number, which 
meets for luncheon once a week. At this 
luncheon names and cards are distributed 
of men in the community who are out- 



side the Church. During the week the 
members call upon these men seeking to 
induce them to accept Christ and enter 
the Church. At the next luncheon each 
man gives his report and plans for the 
following week are discussed. This goes 
on twelve months in the year and has been 
the means of bringing hundreds into 
Christian fellowship. Hosts of men and 
women outside the Church are waiting 
for some Andrew to lead them to Christ. 

Again this new day demands of the 
Church a more definite emphasis upon 
Christian Education. 

In the first year of the war the speaker 
sat at a dinner in Princeton next to Dr. 
Emil Brunner, at that time a guest pro- 
fessor in this Seminary. I said to him: 
“It seems almost unbelievable that Ger- 
many with its long Christian tradition, a 
people which has given to the world many 
of its greatest spiritual leaders, should 
so soon have turned from the faith of its 
fathers and become pagan.” 

“Ah,” he replied, “there is where you 
make your mistake. The paganism of Ger- 
many was not a sudden thing. For over 
half a century God and religion have been 
gradually disappearing from the schools 
of Germany. Education has become secu- 
lar. A generation has arisen which ac- 
knowledges no God and no longer regards 
those basic moral sanctions which are the 
safeguard of national and international 
harmony and decency. That is why the 
churches of Germany are empty and the 
nation has turned its face toward the dark- 
ness in the wake of Adolph Hitler.” 

There is but one sure cure for the evils 
that threaten our democracy and that is 
a return to God, a building again into 
young manhood and womanhood of those 
beliefs which make character. Without a 
background of Christian Education de- 
mocracy cannot survive. 

Let us look at this thing which we call 
Christian Education. It begins, it must 

begin, in the home. It would be difficult 
to find a man who has attained distinction 
as a moral or spiritual leader of his day 
and generation who did not come from a 
Christian home. 

What of the future, for religion in 
many homes has almost disappeared. We 
recall that incident in the life of Hezekiah 
when the King of Babylon sent messen- 
gers to visit and congratulate him upon 
his recovery from sickness. Hezekiah 
treated them royally and sent them on 
their way. After their departure Isaiah 
came in and said to the King: “What 
have they seen in thy house?” A search- 
ing question that ! 

Suppose foreigners who knew nothing 
of our religion were to visit for a week 
in the average so-called Christian home. 
What would they see? They would see 
shelves lined with secular books. They 
would see on the tables secular papers 
and magazines. They would see on the 
walls only secular pictures. They would 
listen to the conversation of the dining 
room and the fireside. It has altogether 
to do with politics and gossip and sport. 
They would go away at the end of their 
time impressed with the thought that 
there was no religion there, or, if there 
was, it plays no real part in the lives of 
the people who reside there. And children 
are growing up there taking on the color 
of their surroundings. Is it any wonder 
that God is not in all their thoughts? 

In Dickens’ “Bleak House” he tells 
the story of the death of Little Joe. He 
was asked if he knew a prayer. The dy- 
ing child looked bewildered. He replied 
that once down at Tom-all- Alone’s had 
been a gentleman they said was a-prayin’, 
but it mostly sounded to him like he was 
talkin’ to himself. He didn’t know nothin’ 
about it, he said. 

It is not difficult to find present day 
parallels to this pathetic incident. One of 
my friends, a minister, told of being in- 



vited one evening with his brother, a mis- 
sionary, to dine at the home of a fashion- 
able acquaintance of them both. As they 
sat down the hostess called on one of them 
to return thanks. When he had finished 
the small boy of the house said, “Mother, 
what was that man talking about?” She 
was embarrassed and tried to ignore him. 
The child persisted : “Mother, what was 
that man talking about?” She had to tell 
him that he was praying. The child had 
never heard anything before like that. 
There are so many Little Joes. 

Not only the home, but the Church also 
must be roused to its responsibility here. 
If parents do not respond to the call of 
responsibility, and if the state will not, 
then the Church must. I am one of an in- 
creasing number who believe that the 
Protestant Church must eventually, like 
the Catholic, take over the week-day in- 
struction of children. In the meantime, 
our Churches must give more time and 
thought and money to Christian Educa- 

Moreover this new day demands of ev- 
ery one of us a new zeal for a Christian 

Some months ago, we met a business 
man in the northwest, an elder in one of 
our churches. He had been in Russia for 
many weeks, traveling from the Baltic 
to the Black and Caspian Seas. He had 
visited the great cities of the Soviet Re- 
public and interviewed all classes of peo- 
ple. He said : “The Church today has in 
Russia the greatest opportunity it has 
known for a thousand years. When the 
revolution came they swept the Church 
out with the rest of the czarist regime. 
But no revolution can destroy the hunger 
of the Russian heart for a religious faith. 
Russia is today reaching out its hands 
to God.” 

We told of his words in a Church in 
Southern California. After the service a 
naval officer said: “I was so interested in 

what you said. My brother has just come 
home from Russia and he tells the same 

The secular press would have us all be- 
lieve that Russia is the world’s greatest 
menace. It can be that or it can be the 
Christian Church’s greatest opportunity 
since the Ascension. 

Think for an instant of that vast 
stretch of the world, reaching from the 
Carpathians in the West to the China Sea 
on the East, embracing the Soviet Em- 
pire, India, and China, over one half of 
the earth’s population, reaching out hun- 
gry hands and hearts to the Christian 
Church of America. 

Over half a century ago Guido Verbeck 
came home from Japan and pleaded with 
the Church in America. He told us that 
the door of Japan was open, that we 
could take that island empire for Christ. 

He pleaded in vain and was gathered to | 
his fathers. Years after Dr. Speer came 
to our churches with the same appeal and 
again the Church did not listen. But later 
we gave thousands of our finest young 
men and expended untold billions of dol- 
lars to keep Japanese paganism from de- 
stroying our civilization. 

What are we going to do with this chal- 
lenge God is laying at the door of the 
Church? Years ago it was not always 
easy to press home the claims of missions 
in the face of the narrow provincialism 
of many Christian people. Now this is a 
thing of the past. This war has brought 
home to every thinking man and woman 
the interdependence of all nations and 
races. We can no longer as Christians jus- 
tify an isolationist attitude in the matter 
of our faith. The imperialistic vision has 
been growing in the mind of the Church. 

In addition to the need of the world and 
the mind of Christ we must proclaim the 
saving truth of the Gospel to all the world 
to save ourselves from being submerged. 



These are a few of the paths down into 
the future that await the Christian minis- 
ter. They are not easy roads. But we do 
not travel them alone. 

Shakespeare’s play “Henry the Fifth” 
has always been a favorite of mine. It has 
recently been put upon the screen and 
some of you doubtless have seen it. The 
finest parts of the play do not appear upon 
the stage. It was the night before the 
fateful battle of Agincourt. King Henry, 
better known to his people as “Harry,” 
with ten thousand English yeomen, was 
encamped on the plains of Normandy. 
Facing him, waiting for the dawn, were 
fifty thousand French veterans. As they 
looked across at the mighty force against 
them the English recruits had become 
panic stricken. That night King Henry 
did not sleep. All night long his tall form 

could be seen moving through the English 
camp, grasping trembling hands, smiling 
into frightened faces, whispering words 
of cheer and courage and hope to his lit- 
tle army. The next day the English arch- 
ers overthrew the French Knights and 
broke the power of feudalism. 

Shakespeare, with that genius which 
was his, tells us what it was that trans- 
formed those men, fearful and afraid, 
into an invincible power on the day of 
battle. It was “a little touch of Harry 
in the night.” 

As we look on toward tomorrow there 
is much that fills us with doubt and fore- 
boding. We, too, need the touch of an 
unseen hand and to hear a voice that 
speaks to us, “We are going out to battle 
on the morrow and I am going with you, 
and I am going before you.” 


The following events will be of interest to Alumni: 

March 3 

1 140 p.m. 

Third term classes begin 

March 12 

Day of Convocation. Three addresses by Emile Cailliet, Litt.D., 

March 25 

7 130 p.m. 

Address by Dr. Frank Aydelotte, Institute for Advanced Study, 

April 20 

11 :oo a.m. 

Sermon by President John A. Mackay in connection with the 
Bicentennial Celebration of Princeton University, University 

April 21-24 

Stone Lectures by Dr. W. A. Visser ’t Hooft 

May 18 

4:00 p.m. 

Baccalaureate Service and Communion, Miller Chapel 

May 19 

10:15 a.m. 

Stated Meeting of the Board of Trustees 

12:30 p.m. 

Club and Class Reunion Luncheons 

4:00 p.m. 

President’s Reception, Springdale 

6:30 p.m. 

Alumni Banquet, Whiteley Gymnasium 

May 20 
May 27- 

10:30 a.m. 

Annual Commencement 

August 15 

Summer Term for study of Hebrew only 

July 7-17 

Princeton Institute of Theology 

July 21-25 

Princeton Institute of Ecumenics 




Henry Snyder Gehman 

P RIOR to the First World War many 
Americans upon their graduation from 
college or the theological seminary con- 
tinued their studies in European universi- 
ties. In numerous instances no degree was 
sought, but the student was satisfied mere- 
ly with the broadening influences of travel 
and contacts with scholarship in a foreign 
land. On the other hand, many men re- 
turned from European study with the 
doctor’s degree and were qualified to 
teach in colleges, universities, and theo- 
logical seminaries. Advanced studies, how- 
ever, gradually developed in this country, 
and a doctorate from a first-class Ameri- 
can institution represented work as thor- 
ough as that required in a German uni- 
versity, and in many cases perhaps better 
fitted a young man for teaching in the 
American scene. With the close of the 
First World War American higher de- 
grees received more prestige at home, 
and now with the collapse of Germany 
our country has a unique opportunity in 
the development of scientific scholarship. 
With conditions no longer as they ob- 
tained before 1914, when many Ameri- 
cans pursued their graduate studies in 
Germany, more students now will secure 
their doctorate in the U.S.A. In fact, with 
our economic resources and well-trained 
scholars on the faculties of various uni- 
versities and theological seminaries, our 
country is in a strategic position for fur- 
ther developments in the educational field 
and in the domain of scientific research in 
the broad sense of the term. For the main 
part, scholarship is now in the hands of 
the English-speaking world, and in the 

present hour this country has an oppor- 
tunity as well as a duty in the promotion 
of scientific scholarship. With the shift 
of graduate work from the continent of 
Europe to America we shall have to edu- 
cate our future teachers and professors 
and also be ready to admit to our gradu- 
ate schools foreign students, who a few 
years ago would have completed their 
studies in other lands. 

In our discussion of graduate work at 
Princeton Theological Seminary we may 
mention, in passing, the Th.M., which has 
its value for men who desire specialized 
study for a year beyond the B.D. Among 
the requirements for this degree is a 
thesis of special merit, and naturally this 
should require considerable research in 
the library under the guidance of a pro- 
fessor. For the most part, however, the 
candidates for the Th.M. intend to go 
into the pastorate, and in the end they 
do not have the leisure to continue re- 
search. Obviously they will have to rely 
on the results of research by other schol- 
ars, and in this way enrich their store of 
knowledge. Thus research will have an 
influence upon the life and thought of 
the Church. 

A few years ago Princeton Theologi- 
cal Seminary inaugurated courses leading 
to the Th.D. degree, and the few doctors 
who have been graduated have already 
achieved a reputation in their chosen fields 
of scholarship. In this discussion of grad- 
uate work we shall have in mind espe- 
cially the candidates for the doctorate, be- 
cause for about three years all their work 
is centered in the library in association 



with their professors. In any considera- 
tion of work for the doctorate the ques- 
tion arises : “Should a man take a doctor’s 
degree for its own sake?” Too often men 
have the mistaken idea that a degree adds 
to their prestige or to their effectiveness 
in a parish. As of old, so today there still 
are those who love “greetings in the mar- 
kets and to be called of men, ‘Rabbi, 
Rabbi.’ ” But unfortunately no higher de- 
gree can add one cubit unto a man’s 
stature, nor is it a key that will automati- 
cally unlock the difficulties of life. In 
fact, one of the basic requirements for 
teaching and preaching is plain ordinary 
common sense; without this fundamental 
basis no degree will lead to a successful 

Should a man work for a higher degree 
merely for the sake of the degree? If the 
doctorate is sought solely for the title, it 
is not worth the severe labor it entails. No 
degree is an honor to a man, unless in his 
professional life and work he honors the 
degree he earned by hard study and re- 
search. A student who undertakes gradu- 
ate work should know what it is about. 
If he discovers that his heart is not in the 
work, he should have the courage to quit 
or the faculty should ask him to leave be- 
fore too much time is wasted. No research 
can be successfully prosecuted unless the 
student has a love for the truth and finds 
a thrill in unravelling difficulties and in 
making discoveries. Certainly any man 
who works for a doctorate has no right 
to expect to live in a country club ; he 
should regard all the prescribed courses 
and requirements as means to an end, not 
as onerous and distasteful duties. The 
Th.D. is primarily a research degree, and 
it should never be regarded as just a few 
jumps beyond the B.D. In speaking of re- 
search we do not limit the word to investi- 
gations in archives and documents; it is 
understood to refer, in the broad sense of 

the term, to making any original contribu- 
tions to theological thought. 

Any work for the doctorate demands a 
reading knowledge of certain languages, 
and clearly the requirements of foreign 
languages are not hurdles placed in the 
way of an ambitious young man nor en- 
cumbrances designedly imposed to keep 
down the supply of doctors or budding 
professors. These tongues are tools a re- 
search worker must have ; they are imple- 
ments indispensable to both student and 
professor to unlock the rich treasures in 
our library and to keep abreast with the 
literature which flows as a constant stream 
from various centers of learning. It seems 
inconceivable that a man can do any theo- 
logical research without a knowledge of 
Latin and German as minima. No science 
of any sort can be studied without reading 
German books and periodicals. What the 
second modern language may be, will de- 
pend upon the literature in the particular 
field of specialization. There is an ecumen- 
icity of scholarship which transcends the 
limitations of national prejudice and pro- 
vincial outlook, and many of the finest 
contributions to theology have not been 
translated into English, and doubtless 
never will be. A graduate student must 
make up his mind to spend many hours in 
the library mastering the literature in his 
special field. For graduate study and re- 
search foreign languages are not for occa- 
sional use, but as the student works in the 
library he must continually read and con- 
sult books and periodicals in foreign 

In training men adequately for the 
degree we need students who will not 
chafe under requirements, and obviously 
our candidates should still be young, if we 
wish to see the best fruits of our labors. 
A young man is still in the formative 
state; his mental habits are not yet fixed. 
He should have less prejudice, and it 
should be easier for him to view a subject 



objectively than for a man who begins 
his studies in the thirties. At a certain 
time in life the human organism can no 
longer undergo the ordeal of long and sus- 
tained effort in acquiring the elements of 
knowledge ; the time to lay the foundation 
for one’s life-work is during young man- 
hood, when both mind and body are still 
pliable and responsive. There is exacted 
in scholarship a certain grind, and the 
habits of research should be developed at 
an early period in life. These, however, 
are not ends in themselves, but the fresh- 
ness of original theological scholarship 
will keep the thought of the Church pul- 
sating with a buoyant life. 

Occasionally, however, due to circum- 
stances beyond his control, a good student 
is forced to postpone his advanced studies 
for a number of years. It also happens in 
some instances that after a minister has had 
a successful pastorate, he is challenged 
to teach in a theological seminary ; in 
such a case the situation demands that he 
prepare himself for the particular chair. 
From time to time there occur these spe- 
cial cases where a mature man has to go to 
class with younger men and on the same 
level prepare himself for a new position. 
Here is where a graduate school can re- 
spond to the needs and life of the Church. 
Although there are these notable excep- 
tions, it seems fair to say that we can 
accomplish most with men well under 
thirty-five, when they still have the elan 
required to explore the sources of knowl- 
edge in the library. A number of years 
beyond the doctorate are required for the 
maturing of abilities and of knowledge, 
and by the time a man has reached forty, 
he should have his life-work well in hand. 
In the last analysis we must admit that the 
Th.D. is a young man’s degree. For after 
the scholar has mastered his subject and 
developed proper procedures, he should 
have many years before him in which to 
make his contributions to the Church. 

Obviously no professor and no student 
can own more than a small portion of the 
books required in the work for the doctor- 
ate. Any graduate work in theology de- 
mands access to a library that is complete 
in having the standard works in the 
various theological disciplines and is con- 
tinually replenished with new books and 
periodicals as they appear. In plain terms, 
the library has to be kept up-to-date if 
respectable graduate work is to be done. 
In graduate studies the professor and stu- 
dent are engaged in a common enterprise. 
Generally speaking, the student himself 
should find the theme for his dissertation 
in connection with his reports in the sem- 
inars; that is far better than blindly un- 
dertaking a field of research for the simple 
reason that it is assigned by a professor. 
At all times a graduate student must learn 
to think for himself. Under no condition 
should he permit himself to become a 
cringing disciple of his mentor, a timorous 
echo of his preceptor, or a second edition 
of his major professor. Independent work 
in the library should develop a refreshing 
spontaneity of approach and presentation 
of subject matter. 

Graduate work consists not only in tak- 
ing courses and in acquiring an extensive 
acquaintance with the field of specializa- 
tion, but in blazing new trails in knowl- 
edge. Stress must continually be laid upon 
original work and in going to the sources 
of knowledge. This demands that the pro- 
fessors who teach graduate students be 
responsible for fewer undergraduate 
courses in order to direct adequately the 
work of the advanced students. This im- 
plies furthermore that ultimately a larger 
number of assistants will be necessary to 
relieve the graduate professors of an ex- 
cessive number of hours in the classroom. 
At this point, however, it must be noted 
that the professor is not merely a direc- 
tor; by his own example he himself will 
have to use the facilities of the library 


1 7 

and publish books and monographs. A suc- 
cessful teacher of graduate work will 
not be merely a passive spectator on the 
bleachers, but he will train with the team 
and take his “punishment” in the scrim- 
mage. The European universities obtained 
their reputation through the published 
works of their professors, and if we ex- 
pect to train adequately future professors 
and research workers, the teachers of 
graduate students will have to take an ac- 
tive part in learned societies and make 
their own contributions to knowledge by 
engaging in research and publishing their 
results. It is idle for us in this country to 
speak of filling the gap in scholarship left 
vacant by the collapse of Germany unless 
graduate faculties are interested in origi- 
nal research; indeed we must do more 
than lean upon the work of both predeces- 
sors and contemporaries. If our published 
works be authoritative, we shall attract 
students of high caliber from this country 
and foreign lands. 

Our library at Princeton Theological 
Seminary is excellent and well supplied 
with materials for research. Yet we are 
seriously handicapped in having our books 
scattered in two separate buildings. For a 
more adequate program of graduate 
studies we need a modern library building 
to house our books and periodicals; that 
new library should have a number of car- 
rells, where our men can pursue their re- 
searches with a sense of independence and 
without interruption. It will also need a 
number of seminar rooms, where the pro- 
fessor can hold conferences with his stu- 
dents and give instruction in an environ- 
ment conducive to stimulating the spirit 
of research. A proper atmosphere for ad- 
vanced instruction is created when the 
! basic books required in a graduate course 
are accessible for immediate consultation 
and available for training the students in 
the proper methodology. A modern library 
building with proper facilities will play 

a vital part in fostering the camaraderie 
which should subsist between professor 
and pupil. In true graduate work the pro- 
fessor and pupil are companions in study 
and colleagues in research. Here is where 
the library and the program of graduate 
studies must be thoroughly integrated. 

At the conclusion of his residence re- 
quirements the student will have to use 
the library more than ever before, as he 
prepares his doctoral dissertation ; and 
this, by the way, is the most important 
part of graduate study. The writing of 
the dissertation may appear to be narrow 
specialization, but it does not necessarily 
have to be so. An extensive bibliography 
will have to be prepared, and the student 
must know the exact status of the subject 
up to the time of his investigations. Evi- 
dence of all sorts must be weighed, but 
the dissertation cannot be a rehash of old 
material. Here the candidate’s work comes 
to fruition, and he reveals the extent of 
his outlook as well as his ability within a 
special topic ; above all he can in this work 
prove whether he can do a good job. But 
last of all, no doctor’s degree can be 
awarded solely for proficiency in a cer- 
tain field; a dissertation must represent a 
contribution to knowledge by being based 
on original sources. 

Princeton Theological Seminary now 
has a unique opportunity in preparing 
men to teach Biblical and theological sub- 
jects, and by maintaining high standards 
of instruction and training in research we 
can make a contribution to American 
and international scholarship. Original re- 
search, however, remains fundamental to 
any graduate work worthy of the name, 
and so the student must continually avail 
himself of the resources of our library. 
In advanced studies both professor and 
student are engaged in a joint undertak- 
ing, and they must always keep a humble 
frame of mind, a love for the truth, and 
a mind open to the truth regardless of its 



implications and consequences. Produc- 
tive scholarship must be accompanied by 
intellectual and spiritual freedom. Thus 
knowledge is pursued not as an end in 
itself, but it is dedicated to the service 
of the Church. 

Now a library is not merely a building 
where books are deposited as in a museum, 
nor is the theological seminary interested 
in simply amassing volumes as does a 
book collector. With the integration of 
graduate courses with the resources in 
our library it becomes a living source of 
power for the Church. Well-trained doc- 
tors of theology leaving our institution 
will be qualified to make their contribu- 
tions to the literature of the Church and 
prevent its thought from becoming static. 
In speaking of an up-to-date library we 
do not mean that only recent books should 
be purchased. We are bearing in mind 
that several centuries ago many volumes 
were written and edited which have re- 
mained basic for Biblical and theological 
research, and so, from time to time, as 
the opportunity presents itself, lacunae in 
our library will have to be filled with 
books published several generations or 
even a longer time ago. In the case of 
learned periodicals the early issues are as 
significant as recent numbers, and in sub- 
scribing to a journal it is always impor- 
tant to have the files complete in order 
that all the numbers may be available for 
research. A library, however, does not ex- 
ist for its own sake ; graduate work is not 

an endurance test or a form of indoor 
sport. As we purchase books for the li- 
brary and teach our students in the proper 
methods of research, we keep within our 
vision the whole field of the Church and 
its intellectual and spiritual needs. 

A number of scholars on several occa- 
sions informed the writer that they con- 
sider the library of Princeton Theological 
Seminary unique in its collection of books 
for research in various departments of 
theology. Unfortunately this fact is not 
generally known. Our graduate work and 
the publications by both faculty and alum- 
ni, however, in due course should make 
our seminary known as a center of ad- 
vanced studies. If our graduate work is 
conducted on a high level, Princeton The- 
ological Seminary will produce a number 
of young men who will advance American 
scholarship; in consequence our library 
will become a national theological center 
to which scholars and professors from 
other institutions will come for special 
research. A modern library building will 
greatly aid in making our materials for 
research available to the world of schol- 
ars, but, after all, this may sound like an 
abstraction. In the end, however, it re- 
mains incumbent upon the faculty of 
graduate instruction by their own work 
to extend the confines of knowledge 
through research and to inculcate a sim- 
ilar spirit in those students who are look- 
ing forward to a career of teaching. 


The aim of the Institute is to provide 
instruction, inspiration, and fellowship for 
ministers and laymen. The program in- 
cludes courses of outstanding interest and 
importance for the understanding of the 
Christian faith and its application within 

the framework of contemporary life. The 
dates of the Institute for 1947 are July 7 
to 17. All inquiries should be directed to 
the secretary of the Institute Committee, 
Dr. J. Christy Wilson, Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary. 




Dear Alumni and Friends of the Seminary: 

On the sixth of October Mrs. Mackay and I arrived back in Princeton from our 
long Latin American journey. In the course of seventeen weeks we had visited four- 
teen countries. The supreme impression with which we returned was that the evangeli- 
cal community in Latin America is on the march and is developing in numbers and 
influence and devotion. 

The journey had been undertaken at the request of the Board of Foreign Missions. 
It was the Board’s desire that two former missionaries should return to their former 
field for a brief period of intensive work, both in the evangelical community and in 
the Latin American community in general. In the course of our journey, which was 
entirely by air, I spoke some two hundred times, ninety per cent of the occasions be- 
ing in Spanish. The audiences, in their varied character, ran the gamut of Latin 
American Society. I addressed evangelicals in church buildings, the general public 
in theatres. I spoke to YMCA groups, to university audiences, to writers’ clubs and 
to teachers’ associations, to the inmates of a famous penitentiary, and at a great 
political rally of the APRA party in Peru. Mrs. Mackay spoke to women at different 
points on our journey. In Theology Today and The Presbyterian, and from time to 
time in other journals, articles will appear inspired by our experiences and dealing 
with diverse phases of Latin American life and thought. 

The experience was strenuous but thrilling. It was particularly inspiring to meet 
Princeton Seminary men engaged in diverse missionary tasks all over the Latin 
American Continent. It was no less moving to find boys, now grown to manhood, 
who had once been my pupils in school or university in Peru, now occupying positions 
of trust in business, government, or the Church. 

Absence and distance, and the human problem in its continental setting, made 
Princeton Theological Seminary stand out in our thoughts with a larger significance 
than ever before. The deep longing we discovered in the chief cultural centers for a 
spiritual interpretation of life, made that kind of theology which does justice to 
Revelation, and has a realistic, sympathetic outlook upon the human scene, a pressing 
intellectual need. Moreover, the evidence found everywhere of the new Roman im- 
perialism brought home to one, in an overwhelming way, the importance of united 
evangelical action. At the same time, the growth of great evangelical churches in 
Latin America, and the increasing number of Latin American students who come 
to Princeton, filled one with a sense of responsibility and gave one a great hope for 
the part God wishes this Seminary to play in the thought and life of those southern 

As for the old campus itself, it is thronged in these days more than it ever was 
in its history. Never have there been so many students on the campus at one time. 
Men and women to the number of three-hundred eleven are enrolled. They hail from 
one-hundred eighty-four colleges and forty-nine seminaries. Ninety-one of the total 
are pursuing graduate studies. Almost one-hundred are veterans, studying under the 
G. I. Bill. The chaplains’ group numbers thirty-six. 



Acceleration being now over, the Seminary goes back to one graduation a year 
instead of four. The only reminiscence of the accelerated course will be a special class 
in elementary Hebrew for veterans, which will be given for twelve weeks during the 
summer. We shall henceforward devote part of each summer to a series of institutes. 
The Institute of Theology is already established as a great national and interdenomina- 
tional event. Next July, the week following this institute will be devoted to an Insti- 
tute of Ecumenics. In this institute will be presented and discussed several of the 
major issues of a practical, frontier character that confront the Christian Church 
today. After the Institute of Ecumenics has become established, there will be added 
an Institute of Education at which will be dealt with questions connected with the 
Christian faith in its relation to education, literature, the press and to culture in 

We greatly miss the beloved Dr. Henry Seymour Brown who retired in August, 
in accordance with the General Assembly’s ruling. In May we shall lose Dr. Kuizenga, 
who after nearly twenty years of distinguished service to the Seminary, is also ap- 
proaching the age prescribed for retirement from active service. Dr. Hromadka will 
be returning next summer to his Chair of Theology in the University of Prague, and 
will be sorely missed by a mournful but grateful Seminary. Let us have your prayers 
in view of the very important faculty appointments which these retirements will 
make necessary within the coming months. 

The new administration building is a joy to work in. How grateful we are for the 
magnificent response from the alumni which has made it possible. 

Praying God’s richest blessing upon your labors and with affectionate regards, 

Yours very sincerely, 




U PON the occasion of his retirement, 
in accordance with the rule of the 
General Assembly, the Board of Trustees 
desires to record its deep appreciation of 
the service rendered by Dr. Henry Sey- 
mour Brown to Princeton Theological 
Seminary during the nine years which he 
has occupied the Vice-Presidency. 

Responding in 1937 to an earnest call 
of the Board of Trustees and the Presi- 
dent of the Seminary, Dr. Brown left an 
important position under the Presbytery 
of Chicago to head up the new Forward 
Movement which had been initiated by 
the Seminary with a view to securing the 
funds necessary for its development. Dur- 
ing the intervening years the Vice-Presi- 
dent has given himself unstintingly and 
with success to the important task as- 
signed to him by the Board of Trustees. 
In loyal and affectionate partnership with 
the President of the Seminary he has co- 
operated in everything relating to the 
development and progress of the institu- 
tion. By public addresses in synods and 
presbyteries he has stirred the Church to 
consider its obligation to support theologi- 
cal education. The atmosphere created 
throughout the Church by this campaign 
was an important factor in bringing it 
about that the seminaries were, at long 
last, included in the benevolence budget 
of the Church. 

In cooperation with Dr. David Hugh 
Jones, the Seminary’s Director of Music, 
Dr. Brown has made the Seminary Choir 
a spiritual instrument of the Forward 
Movement. Visits made by the Choir to 
more than five hundred Presbyterian con- 
gregations in the mid- Atlantic and New 
England states have brought theologi- 
cal education vividly before Presbyterian 

Church people and secured the loyal ad- 
hesion of many congregations to the 
cause of Princeton Seminary. These visits 
have proved a means of grace to multi- 
tudes of people, while at the same time 
bringing the ministry as a vocation to the 
attention of youth. 

Dr. Brown has devoted himself, more- 
over, to arousing the Alumni of the Semi- 
nary to a sense of their responsibility to- 
wards their Alma Mater. By his clear 
vision and devotion, his wealth of telling 
facts, and the richness of his humor he 
has raised the morale of the Alumni, who, 
on their part, have responded by con- 
tributing generously to diverse Seminary 
projects. He has also had the satisfaction 
of securing some considerable gifts for 
the Forward Movement, and was the au- 
thor, besides, of the new plan of annui- 
ties. Above all, he has radiated Christian 
friendship wherever he has gone and made 
a host of friends for Princeton Seminary. 
The fruits of these labors the Seminary 
will reap for many years ahead. 

In the internal life of the Seminary, 
Dr. Brown has been a tower of strength 
and a fountain of friendliness. His warm 
devotion and his wealth of experience in 
the Church’s service have been a constant 
help and inspiration to his colleagues and 
to all the students with whom he has 
come into contact. His loving presence 
will be greatly missed on the campus, but 
his memory will live on amid monuments 
which time will rear to his devotion. 

The Board of Trustees in thanking Dr. 
Brown for his term of distinguished and 
fruitful service wishes him and Mrs. 
Brown many long and hallowed years in 
their retirement. 




Lefferts A. Loetscher 

Opening of Seminary 

T HE Seminary opened on Septem- 
ber 1 6 with the largest enrollment in 
its history. A total of 356 students from 
183 colleges are listed in the current cata- 
logue. The opening address was delivered 
by Dr. Stuart Nye Hutchison, pastor of 
the East Liberty Presbyterian Church of 
Pittsburgh and a member of the Semi- 
nary’s Board of Trustees. 

The graduate and junior groups are 
particularly large, numbering more than 
a hundred each (118 and 105), with the 
senior and middler classes — vintage of the 
war years — somewhat smaller ( 56 and 
59). There are also 18 special students. 
As these figures imply, there are a great 
many veterans in the two largest groups — 
chaplains among the graduate students 
and men from the line service in the jun- 
ior class. There are ex-service men in the 
other classes also. One of the casualties 
of the war years was the larger part of 
the delegation of foreign students whose 
presence on the campus ordinarily adds 
so much to Seminary life. It is a pleas- 
ure to be able to report that visitors from 
abroad are this year with us in renewed 
force, from 18 foreign countries, scat- 
tered over all five major continents. The 
fellowship is truly an ecumenical one. 
From within our own country, 39 states 
and territories are represented. 

The Faculty 

It was a great pleasure to the whole 
faculty to receive back again on October 5 
Dr. and Mrs. Mackay after their very 
strenuous missionary visit to South Amer- 
ica. From the time they took off at the 

Newark airport on June 7 until their re- 
turn four months later the journey was 
a continuous succession of enplanings and 
addresses. By such a strenuous schedule 
it was possible to visit fourteen different 
lands extending from Cuba and Mexico 
to Argentina. Both Dr. and Mrs. Mackay 
filled strenuous speaking schedules. The 
Spanish press in the various lands was 
frequently most appreciative in its com- 

Dr. Hromadka, too, was abroad this 
past summer, in an itinerary that took him 
to Britain and the Continent. Sailing on 
the S.S. Brazil on July 16, he found him- 
self in the company of some fifty stu- 
dents going to conferences abroad, and 
soon became occupied with conversation 
and addresses. In Scotland he visited a 
former teacher to whom he owed much, 
Principal David Cairns, and was with him 
the day he died. After about a week in 
Britain Dr. Hromadka went to his native 
Czechoslovakia, where he occupied him- 
self with studying the religious and moral 
situation and with making preparations 
for his own return to the University of 
Prague next year. Dr. Hromadka found 
his country making notable recovery po- 
litically and economically since his visit 
last year, but found the Continent even 
more exhausted morally and spiritually 
than he had expected. 

The annual Faculty reception for stu- 
dents was held on October 17. Because 
of the unusually large enrollment this 
year the event took place in the Whiteley 
Gymnasium rather than in the Lenox Li- 
brary. Invitations were extended to all fac- 
ulty members, missionaries in residence, 
students, Princeton Presbyterian pastors, 



and their wives, and about 450 were pres- 
ent. It was a busy time for Mrs. Mackay 
and the other ladies of the Faculty, with 
students, too, helping in various ways. 

Sometime near the opening of every 
Seminary year the Faculty take a Satur- 
day for a “retreat” at which problems af- 
fecting the life and work of the Seminary 
are informally discussed. This year, on 
November 16, the retreat was held at the 
Evangelical Deaconry at Liberty Corners 
in northern New Jersey. The fellowship 
among Faculty members on these occa- 
sions always proves stimulating and help- 

Foreign Missions 

The Students’ Lectures on Foreign 
Missions were this year delivered by 
Dr. T. Z. Koo, widely known Chinese 
Christian leader, and at present a resident 
of Payne Hall. He is a fascinating speak- 
er and throughout his four lectures, Oc- 
tober 21-24, there was an unusually large 
number of visitors from outside the Semi- 

Alumni will be interested to know that 
the following missionaries are now in 
residence in Payne Hall, 38-44 Alexander 
Street, Princeton: Rev. and Mrs. A. D. 
Clark (Colombia) ; Rev. and Mrs. J. Y. 
Crothers (China) ; Rev. and Mrs. W. 
P. Fenn (China) ; Rev. and Mrs. C. Roy 
Harper (Brazil) ; Rev. and Mrs. R. A. 
Iobst (Nicaragua) ; Dr. and Mrs. T. Z. 
Koo (China) ; Rev. and Mrs. J. A. Napp 
(India) ; Mrs. S. L. Roberts (Korea) ; 
Mr. and Mrs. A. T. Roy (China) ; Rev. 
and Mrs. W. J. Skellie (Egypt) ; Rev. 
and Mrs. W. C. Smith (India) ; Rev. 
and Mrs. F. Scott Thompson (Egypt). 

The missionaries in Payne Hall on an 
afternoon in the autumn invited all semi- 
nary students to a tea. This afforded a fine 
opportunity to become mutually acquaint- 
ed and also for the students to get direct 
and authentic information concerning most 

recent missionary developments, problems, 
and needs in many lands. 

The Seminary continues to maintain 
and foster its well-known missionary in- 
terest. Each year sees many seniors de- 
voting their lives to this great field of 

Alumni Gatherings 

A number of interesting gatherings of 
alumni groups have been held recently. 
In connection with the annual meeting of 
the Synod of New Jersey at Atlantic 
City on October 15, a large body of 
Princeton Seminary alumni and some of 
their wives attended a luncheon meeting. 
Dr. Walter L. Whallon, of Newark, a 
member of the Board of Trustees, pre- 
sided. Just to make sure that everything 
was “according to Hoyle,” “McNamara’s 
Band” was duly sung. Dean Edward H. 
Roberts gave some interesting information 
concerning the Seminary and Dr. Norman 
V. Hope, Professor-elect of Church His- 
tory, delivered an address which was 
enthusiastically received by the alumni. 
Much credit goes to the Rev. Guy A. 
Bensinger, of Dutch Neck, who makes 
the arrangements for these luncheons 
each year. 

At Harrisburg, on October 18, another 
representative group of alumni assembled 
in the Market Square Church. The pastor, 
Dr. Raymond C. Walker, who is a trus- 
tee of the Seminary, was host, and Dr. 
Charles A. Underwood, president of the 
alumni of this area, presided. Many in- 
teresting facts regarding the Seminary 
were given by Dean Roberts, and Dr. 
Hope gave a most helpful address on 
“The Minister and the Atom Bomb.” 
An extended discussion was followed by 
a luncheon. 

Still other Seminary alumni met in 
Philadelphia on December 2. There are 
many Princeton men in the Philadelphia 
area, and this constitutes one of the 



strong district organizations of alumni. 
Dr. Mackay addressed the meeting and 
spoke on his recent visit to Latin America, 
describing the experiences and impres- 
sions of the visit to our good neighbors 
to the south. 

Choir Visits Cuba 

The Princeton Seminary Choir is al- 
ready well known to alumni and friends 
of the Seminary through its ambitious 
program of Sunday visits to churches, 
reaching about three churches every week- 
end. These Sunday visits can, of course, 
be made only to churches in the north- 
eastern United States, as choir members 
throughout the winter are occupied with 
their Seminary studies. This last summer, 
under the able leadership of its director, 
Dr. David Hugh Jones, the choir greatly 
extended its range of service by a trip 
through the southern states to Florida 
and thence to Cuba. The choir hopes next 
summer to visit the southwestern states 
and perhaps also to enter Mexico. Pastors 
in this area who would welcome a visit 
from the choir are invited to address Dr. 
David Hugh Jones at the Seminary. 

We quote an account of the choir’s 
visit to Cuba last summer written by an 
alumnus member of the choir, the Rev. 
Merle S. Irwin, assistant pastor of the 
Westfield Presbyterian Church. 

“The Princeton Theological Seminary choir, 
under the direction of Dr. David Hugh Jones, 
has just completed a tour of Cuba where they 
sang 36 services during their eight day tour 
of the island, and a total of 46 services in the 
sixteen days of their trip southward. 

“Leaving Princeton on the 28th of August, 
the first service was sung at the Barton Heights 
Baptist Church in Richmond, Virginia. There 
followed, in order, two noon day services at the 
Edenton Street Methodist Church of Raleigh, 
North Carolina, and the Presbyterian Church 
in Jacksonville, Florida. 

“Arriving in Miami, the six cars were put 
aside and the choir took to the air lanes, arriv- 
ing amidst a glorious welcome in Havana two 
short hours later. There followed in rapid suc- 

cession a trip to ‘El Mundo,’ one of Havana’s 
leading newspapers, where the choir was photo- 
graphed while singing; a radio broadcast over 
station KMOX; and a service at the Methodist 
Church of Candler College. 

“Sunday was a busy day ! Beginning with the 
Presbyterian church at Salud 218, the choir 
moved on to the American Union church, Indus- 
tria y Virtudes, where they sang two services — • 
one to a Spanish speaking congregation, and the 
other to the only English speaking group they 
met on the entire Cuban tour. Then, after sump- 
tuous dinners in various homes, the Chinese 
Presbyterian Sunday school was visited, and two 
Presbyterian missions in the suburbs of Havana. 

“On Monday morning a chartered bus was 
waiting at the door of Candler College, and the 
twenty-four members of the choir scrambled for 
seats as the actual tour got underway. Heading 
eastward, the men sang their way across 800 
miles of Cuban sugar cane, palm trees, tobacco 
fields, pineapple and banana plantations, and 
into the hearts of hundreds of Cuban Christians. 

“Highlights of the week’s trip included: a 
sunrise service at Matanzas, the first service 
of the new Union Seminary, which is being 
sponsored jointly by the Boards of the Methodist 
and Presbyterian churches, and which will be 
called ‘The Evangelical Seminary of Theology’. 
Dr. Alfonso Rodriguez, our wonderful guide, 
interpreter and friend on the trip and a candi- 
date for the Doctor of Theology degree at 
Princeton Seminary, is the newly elected Presi- 
dent of Cuba’s first Seminary. Other memorable 
services included those at Sancti Spiritus, one 
of Cuba’s oldest cities ; at Placetas del Sur, 
high point of the trip in respect to altitude, 
where the church is a converted tobacco ware- 
house ; at Caibarien, on the sea, where an orig- 
inal cooperative investment of $80 has grown 
to $70,000 and now helps support a lovely 
church and college; at the Seventh Day Ad- 
ventist College near Santa Clara, where there 
was a splendid group of ministerial candidates 
for that church; and at Progressiva College in 
Cardenas, admitted by all to be the finest and 
best in Cuba, where an evening concert was 
given, and five worship services the following 
Sunday morning. 

“Arriving at their hotels in Miami at 3:45 
A.M. Monday morning, the members of the 
choir were nevertheless on the road again by 
nine o’clock and headed toward home. Stops 
were made and services sung at the Presby- 
terian Church of Ocala, Florida ; at the Kiwanis 
club meeting in Lake City, Florida; at the Cen- 
tral Presbyterian Church of Atlanta, Georgia; 



at the Boys High School of Anderson, South 
Carolina; and at the Presbyterian Church of 
the Covenant in Greensboro, North Carolina. 
Although they had driven nearly four hundred 
miles that day, seventeen of the men drove all 
night in order to reach Princeton by registration 
time the following day. 

“Perhaps a word is in order as to the type 
of service that was conducted on this tour. 
Eight or ten sacred numbers were sung in 
groups, ranging from the sixteenth century to 
modern day compositions, by composers of every 
nationality on the three main themes : The Ad- 
vent, Crucifixion and Resurrection of Christ. 
Two students would speak during each service 
on their call to the Christian ministry, and one 
would speak on the need for ministers of the 
gospel today. Every testimony would be differ- 
ent! Each man, in turn, would give his witness 
to the power of Christ in his own life, in the 
hope that it might help those who were listen- 
ing. So the first speaker might be a former V-12 
student for the Chaplaincy ; the next a son from 
the manse; then an Air Force pilot of the war, 
with 37 missions over Germany; followed by a 
Professor’s son ; or one from the farm ; a son 
of a baker; or our one Chinese member, who 
is the first Christian to come forth from his 
pagan family in Hawaii. But regardless of back- 
grounds and the many ways through which he 
had wandered before answering the call, each 
man’s witness was in most respects the same — 
Christ had spoken to him by name, and he was 
preparing to serve Him through His church. 
The services generally concluded with every one 
present joining in the final hymn. In Cuba, 
the choir would sing in English and the people 
in Spanish, proving as never before, that the 
gospel of Christ, whether in word or song, knows 
no barrier of speech. 

“The members of the choir will probably 
never know how much help they rendered the 
cause of Christ in Cuba. The purpose of the 
trip was just to make friends — a Christian 
goodwill mission to our Spanish speaking neigh- 
bors — but one very real evidence of God’s power 
came at the conclusion of the tour. Where ‘The 
Evangelical Seminary of Theology’ had four 
students enrolled at the time of the sunrise 
service at the beginning of the week, at the 
conclusion of the tour, there were twelve stu- 
dents ready to give their lives in service to the 
Master, in whatever way He would use them. 
One was a very prominent lawyer who ‘re- 
ceived a vision during the service’ and at its 
conclusion simply got on the bus and headed 
toward the Seminary. 

“Altogether, the brief tour of this beautiful 
country was a source of inspiration to every 
member of the choir, and all of the men re- 
turned home mindful of several things : First, 
of the great way in which God has blessed us 
as a nation; Second, of the wonderful spirit of 
the Christian people whom we met ; and third, 
of the great need and the many opportunities 
still awaiting the impact of the gospel among 
our Spanish speaking neighbors.” 

It is interesting to note that the choir 
received many appreciative letters both 
from the states traversed en route and 
from Cuba. One of the letters from Cuba 
said in part : “You may be absolutely sure 
that your sympathetic attitude, the Chris- 
tian love which you invariably manifested, 
and the way in which you presented those 
hymns produced a deep impression on 
this people, the majority of whom are in- 
different to the pure preaching of the 
Gospel but who were moved to their 
depths by the messages given and the per- 
fect music produced.” The letter reports 
that the director of a Cuban municipal 
band who heard the Seminary choir said 
“that he had never believed it possible that 
the harmony of a great orchestra could 
have been produced with human voices as 
you were able to do it.” The writer adds : 
“May God bless you and grant that you 
may be able to return to us again to de- 
light our ears with that sublime music.” 

Theology Today 

It is a pleasure to observe that the cir- 
culation of Theology Today is still ex- 
panding. One of the ecumenical agencies, 
The Church World Service Commission, 
is undertaking to distribute regularly 150 
copies of the periodical in Europe and 
150 more in the Orient to libraries and to 
individuals in theological institutions. The 
contents of Theology Today , too, are at- 
tracting ever wider attention. One of its 
editorials was reprinted in a British reli- 
gious digest. An article was translated into 
Spanish for a Mexican religious journal 



and part of Table Talks was reproduced 
in a Canadian church paper. 

With the current January issue Theol- 
ogy Today completes its third full year. 
This issue, which deals with the general 
theme “The Holy Spirit and the Christian 
Life,” is fully up to the journal's high 
standards. “A Theological Meditation on 
Latin America” is the title of an editorial 
by Dr. Mackay. Among the many stimu- 
lating articles is one by Dr. F. W. Dilli- 
stone, Vice-Principal of the London Col- 
lege of Divinity, on “The Biblical Doctrine 
of the Holy Spirit.” Professor Daniel 
Lamont, of New College, Edinburgh, 
writes on “Bunyan’s Holy War: A Study 
in Christian Experience.” “John Donne’s 
Insight” is treated by Professor Wilbur 
Dwight Dunkel, of the University of 
Rochester. Dr. Kerr has his “Theological 
Table Talk,” and Dr. Homrighausen “The 
Church in the World,” both regular fea- 
tures. Theology Today provides an ideal 
means of keeping in touch with most re- 
cent developments in the theological world. 

Student Activities 

Early in the Fall Term members of the 
junior class and their wives visited the 
Faculty, who were gathered by depart- 
ments in five professor’s homes. This af- 
forded a splendid chance for Faculty and 
new students to become acquainted. The 
plan was first tried last spring with the 
small off-season group which then entered 
and proved so successful that it was re- 

The Student Council has assumed re- 
sponsibilities of student leadership admi- 
rably, upperclassmen showing a very active 
interest and sense of responsibility in 
Seminary affairs. Each spring the Faculty 
Committee on Student Life meets with 
the outgoing and the incoming Student 
Councils in a planning conference. Again 
in the fall there is a meeting with the new 
Student Council. This promotes under- 

standing between Faculty and student 
body and proves mutually helpful in facil- 
itating constructive work on the campus 
throughout the year. 

The annual Day of Prayer was held on 
November 12. Dr. Kuizenga gave the 
morning address, prayer petitions were 
presented by a number of students in the 
afternoon, and in the evening the Moder- 
ator of the General Assembly, Dr. M. 
Frederick W. Evans, was the speaker. The 
Day of Prayer in the fall and the some- 
what similar Day of Convocation in the 
spring term always prove to be among the 
high points of the Seminary year. 

Three retreats have been held for mem- 
bers of the junior class, with about three- 
fourths of the entire class attending. The 
students themselves assumed a large meas- 
ure of the responsibility for organizing 
and promoting these this year. 

Reference to the devotional life of the 
Seminary would not be complete without 
mention of the prayer meetings held in 
the clubs each week. This year small 
prayer groups have been organized in the 
dormitories. The atmosphere of many of 
these informal groups has been spontane- 
ous and helpful. 

Facing somewhat more in an academic 
direction are two special interest groups. 
One of these is concerned with social edu- 
cation and action, and holds meetings 
from time to time to which all are invited, 
and distributes pertinent literature. The 
other special interest group studies wor- 
ship, meeting regularly for study and dis- 
cussion. These non-curricular, non-credit 
groups are a wholesome sign. 

But no one pretends that everybody is 
working all of the time! One need only 
to hear the cheering during the touch foot- 
ball season to have such gloomy illusions 
dispelled. There are three clubs in opera- 
tion — Calvin-Warfield, Benham, Friar, 
and these three, together with the married 
men, constitute an “ivy league.” With the 


2 7 

colder weather basketball and handball 
have superseded the outdoor sports, with 
some of the Faculty “trying their hand” 
at handball. 

Early in December the three under- 
graduate classes made their annual visits 
to the Church Boards, with one class vis- 
iting the Boards of Christian Education 
and Pensions and with the other two 
visiting the Boards of Foreign Missions 
and National Missions, respectively. The 
experience proves interesting and inform- 
ing to the visitors and lays the foundations 
for more intelligent and wholehearted 
support of the Church’s benevolent enter- 
prises on the part of the rising generation 
of pastors. 

Christmas Celebration 

The annual Christmas Musical Festi- 
val which was to be held on Tuesday 
evening, December 17 at 7 130 p.m., in 
Miller Chapel, was postponed to Tuesday 
evening, January 7. Four Seminary choirs 
joined voices for the program. One of the 
most interesting of these four groups is 
the recently organized interracial Chil- 
dren’s Choir of fifty voices, which sang 
the soprano aria “Rejoice Greatly, O 
Daughters of Zion” from Handel’s “The 
Messiah.” Also performing in this pro- 
gram was the newly organized Ladies 
Chorus, composed of eighteen girls from 
the School of Christian Education, which 
sang a group of interesting Christmas 

The regular Mixed Choir and the Male 
Chorus of the Seminary united in the 
performance of a large portion of Part I 

of Handel’s “The Messiah.” Added to this 
was the singing of several familiar Christ- 
mas hymns by the entire congregation. 

Restoration Fund 

In these days when the Presbyterian 
Church is much occupied with completing 
in a worthy way its Restoration Fund, 
news of the response made by one alum- 
nus’ church is encouraging to all. Dr. 
George H. Talbott, of the class of 1923, 
has been ill for more than a year, but his 
church, the First Presbyterian Church of 
Passaic, New Jersey, has been carrying on 
nobly. The church’s quota for the Resto- 
ration Fund was $18,000. Not satisfied 
with this, the members went to work and 
raised $26,000, a most eloquent tribute to 
the leadership and inspiration received 
from their pastor. 

Gift to Library 

The Seminary Library has received 
from Mr. Woodbury S. Ober a gift of 
Original Leaves from Famous Bibles: 
Nine Centuries, 11 21-193 5, collected and 
assembled by Otto F. Ege of the Cleve- 
land School of Art. Individual pages from 
thirty-eight of the more famous editions 
of the Bible are included, each one artisti- 
cally mounted with a brief description of 
the Bible from which the leaf was taken. 
The first in chronological sequence is a 
leaf from an Armenian manuscript dated 
in A.D. 1121 ; the last is a leaf from the 
Oxford Lectern Bible designed by Bruce 
Rogers and printed in 1935. This valuable 
collection will prove to be of great use- 




T HE proposed agreement between the 
Board of Trustees of the Seminary 
of the Presbyterian Church of the U.S.A. 
at Princeton in the State of New Jersey, 
and the Alumni Association of Princeton 
Theological Seminary regarding the elec- 
tion of Alumni Trustees reads as follows: 

The Board of Trustees hereby agrees to in- 
sert the amendment, given below, in their By- 
Laws for the purpose of implementing this 
agreement and to carry out its stipulations, pro- 
vided the Alumni Association accepts the fol- 
lowing considerations and provisions which were 
discussed and agreed to in principle at a meeting 
of a special committee of the Board of Trustees 
and the Alumni Council held in Princeton, New 
Jersey on March 5, 1945. 

1. That it is inexpedient to press for an 
amendment to the Charter of the Seminary at 
the present time seeking to increase the member- 
ship of the Board of Trustees by six members 
from the Alumni Association in order to secure 
Alumni representation. 

2. That the Alumni will be adequately repre- 
sented on the Board of Trustees by the election 
of three Alumni Trustees in the manner pro- 
vided by the attached amendment to the By- 
Laws of the Board of Trustees and the Board 
of Trustees will preserve an essential character- 
istic of the present Charter which vests the 
power of election of Trustees in the Board of 
Trustees, subject to their approval by the Gen- 
eral Assembly. 

3. That the procedures to be followed in the 
making of nominations to the Board be as fol- 
lows : 

(a) A Committee on Nominations shall be 
elected at the Alumni Meeting of the Alumni 
Association, to which Committee names may be 
suggested as nominees by any member of the 
Alumni Association. 

(b) This Committee shall, after due consid- 
eration of all the names suggested to the Com- 
mittee, propose three or more nominees for the 
consideration of the Alumni who shall cast their 
votes by mail from ballots printed in the Alumni 

(c) The Officers of the Alumni Council shall 
act as tellers and certify annually the person 
receiving the highest number of votes to the 

Nominating Committee of the Board of Trus- 
tees through the Secretary of said Board as the 
nominee of the Alumni for said year. Such certi- 
fication shall be in the hands of the Secretary 
by February 1st of each year. 

(d) The Administrative Committee of the 
Board of Trustees and the Alumni Council are 
empowered by those whom they respectively 
represent to confer from time to time for the 
purpose of reaching decisions about the details 
of procedures in carrying out the terms of this 
agreement. The powers of such conferences 
shall not involve the making of any changes in 
the fundamental principles of this agreement. 


In accordance with the agreement between 
this Board of Trustees and the Alumni Associa- 
tion of Princeton Theological Seminary on rec- 
ord in the Minutes of the Board dated May 22, 
1945, the Nominating Committee shall, annually, 
when nominating members of the Board, trans- 
mit to the Board for its consideration the name 
of the Alumnus submitted by the Alumni Asso- 
ciation through the Secretary of this Board. 
The Secretary shall be the medium of communi- 
cation between the Board and the Association 
in all that relates to the nominating and election 
of Alumni Trustees. 

As soon as vacancies among the ministerial 
members of the Board occur, these vacancies, 
to the number of one in each Class, shall be 
filled by the nominee of the Alumni Association, 
when duly and properly elected by the Trustees 
at their Annual Meeting and approved by the 
General Assembly. While in service these Alum- 
ni Trustees shall have the same status and 
powers as the other Trustees. 

These nominees, if and when elected and ap- 
proved, shall each serve for a single term of 
three years; except that, if originally elected to 
fill an unexpired term, an Alumni nominee shall 
be eligible for election as his own successor for 
a full term of three years without the renewed 
nomination by the Alumni Association. 

The Secretary of the Board of Trustees 
offered the following resolution ratifying 
the agreement: 



The Alumni Association of the Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States of America in meeting assembled 
on May 20, 1946, hereby ratifies the action of 
the Alumni Council in completing an agreement 
with the Board of Trustees for the nomination 
of Alumni to be considered by the Board in 
filling vacancies. 

This agreement was consummated on May 21, 

1945, and confirmed by the General Assembly 
at its 1945 meeting. 

This action is taken at the first meeting of 
this Association after the war, the meetings of 
this Association having been omitted during the 
war emergency. 

The Secretary of the Alumni Association is 
instructed to transmit this action to the Board 
of Trustees through the Secretary of that Board. 

The resolution of ratification was unanimously 

In accordance with the above provisions 
the Nominating Committee of the Alumni 
Association, composed of Frederick 
Schweitzer, Chairman, Frederick Druck- 
enmiller, Arthur Northwood, Roland B. 
Lutz, and Raymond I. Lindquist, met and 
selected nominees suggested by various 
alumni. Below is presented a brief bio- 
graphical sketch of each candidate. 

Class of 1905 
Troy, New York 

Frederick W. Evans was born in Corsica, 
Pennsylvania, July 17, 1880. He was graduated 
by Washington and Jefferson College in 1902, 
and by Princeton Seminary in 1905. Later the 
degree of Master of Arts and the degree of 
Doctor of Laws were conferred upon him by 
Washington and Jefferson College, and the de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity by Bellevue College. 
He has served the following churches : Union 
Church, Coleraine, Pennsylvania, 1905 to 1906, 
First Church, Steubenville, Ohio, 1906 to 1911, 
Montview Boulevard Church, Denver, Colorado, 
1911 to 1914, First Church of Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, 1914 to 1919, Harlem-New York Church, 
New York City, 1919 to 1926, Church of the 
Redeemer, Paterson, New Jersey, 1926 to 1929, 
Second Church of Troy, New York, 1929 to 

He was elected Moderator of the General 
Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in May 


Class of 1919 
Wilmington, Delaware 

Albert H. Kleffman was born at Scotland, 
Pennsylvania, May 29, 1896. He was graduated 
by Lebanon Valley College in 1916 and by 
Princeton Seminary in 1919. Princeton Univer- 
sity conferred the degree of Master of Arts 
upon him in 1919 and Lebanon Valley College 
conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 
1936. He has served the following churches : 
Fulton Avenue Church, Baltimore, Maryland, 
1929 to 1937, Stated Supply, Lakeland Church, 
Baltimore, Maryland, 1924 to 1927, West 
Church, Wilmington, Delaware, 1927 to the 
present time. 

He has served as Moderator of the Presby- 
tery at Newcastle, Moderator of the Synod at 
Baltimore and President of the Presbyterian 
Ministers Social Union of Philadelphia. He is 
on the editorial staff of Monday Morning. 

Class of 1927 
Buffalo, New York 

James W. Laurie was born in Bellingham, 
Washington, September 10, 1903. He was grad- 
uated by Coe College in 1924 and by Princeton 
Seminary in 1927. Princeton University con- 
ferred the degree of Master of Arts upon him 
in the same year. The degree of Doctor of Di- 
vinity was conferred upon him by Coe College 
in 1941. He has served the following churches : 
Second Church, Rahway, New Jersey, 1927 to 
1936, Second Church of Wilkinsburg (Pitts- 
burgh) Pennsylvania, 1936 to 1942, Central 
Church, Buffalo, New York, 1942 to the present 

He is a member of the Council on Theological 
Education of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. 

Class of 1912 
Indianapolis, Indiana 

Roy Ewing Vale was born at Ewington, Ohio, 
May 18, 1885. He was graduated by Tusculum 
College in 1909 and by Princeton Seminary in 
1912. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was 
conferred upon him by Washington College. 
Tennessee, in 1917 and the degree of Doctor of 
Laws was given him by Maryville College in 
1922. He has served the following churches : 
First Church, Lambertville, New Jersey, 1912 
to 1913; Second Reformed Church of America, 



Somerville, New Jersey, 1913 to 1917; Second 
Presbyterian Church, Knoxville, Tennessee, 1917 
to 1921; First Church, Oak Park, Illinois, 1921 
to 1930; Woodward Avenue Church, Detroit, 
Michigan, 1930 to 1940, and the Tabernacle 
Church in Indianapolis, 1940 to the present time. 

He has served on many of the boards and 
agencies of the Church and has been President 
of the Princeton Seminary Alumni Association 
and Moderator of the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. 

Class of 1914 
Quarryville, Pennsylvania 

George H. Shea was born at Chrome, Penn- 
sylvania, February 29, 1888. He was graduated 
by Lincoln University in 1911 and by Western 
Theological Seminary in 1914. The first two 
years of his Seminary course were taken at 
Princeton and later he returned to the Seminary 
for two years of graduate work. The degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by 
Lincoln University in 1943. He has served the 
Middle Octorara Church at Quarryville, Penn- 
sylvania, continuously since 1915. He has served 
for the past fifteen years as Stated Clerk of the 
Presbytery at Donegal and Moderator of the 
Synod of Pennsylvania. He is a Director of the 
Red Cross of Lancaster County, a Director of 
the Lancaster County Sunday School Associa- 
tion and a Director of the Department of Public 
Assistance of Pennsylvania. 

Class of 1934 
Albany, New York 

Arthur M. Adams was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, September 28, 1908. He was 
graduated by the University of Pennsylvania in 
1931 and by Princeton Seminary in 1934. He 
served the Glading Memorial Presbyterian 
Church in Philadelphia from 1934 to 1944 and 
has been Pastor of the First Church of Albany, 
New York, since 1945. 

Class of 1935 
Latrobe, Pennsylvania 

William F. McClain was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, October 10, 1911. He was grad- 
uated by Muskegon College in 1932 and by 
Princeton Seminary in 1935. He served the 
Olivet Church of Easton, Pennsylvania, from 

1935 to 1942, at which time he entered the 
chaplaincy of the United States Navy. He 
served in the Navy with the Fourth Regiment 
from 1942 to 1945, being attached to the Marine 
Corps. He was awarded the bronze star for 
service under fire. Since 1945 he has been Pas- 
tor of the Church at Latrobe. 

Class of 1940 

Morgantown, West Virginia 

Richard C. Smith was born in Morrisville, 
New York, on December 14, 1914. He was grad- 
uated by Hope College in 1937 and by Prince- 
ton Seminary in 1940. The degree of Master of 
Theology was conferred upon him by Princeton 
Seminary in 1941. Immediately following his 
graduation he became Director of the Shack, 
Christian Neighborhood House, Pursglove, West 
Virginia, a project under the Board of National 
Missions. Recently he was made Missions Su- 
pervisor of the Mountaineers Mining Mission 
in two counties of West Virginia. His work 
among the miners received extensive recogni- 
tion in recent issues of Time and Life. He has 
received the Distinguished Service Award of 
the U.S. Junior Chamber of Commerce for serv- 
ice to the State of West Virginia. He is Vice- 
moderator of the Synod of West Virginia and 
is Chairman of the Committee on Social Educa- 
tion and Action for the Synod of West Virginia 
and for the West Virginia Council of Churches. 
He is the author of International Radio Produc- 
tions Series, “Victorious Living.” 

Class of 1937 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

C. Ralston Smith was born in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, on February 21, 1908. He was 
graduated by Asbury College in 1934 and by 
Princeton Seminary in 1937. From 1937 to 1940 
he served as Assistant Pastor in the First 
Church of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and since 
1940 has been Pastor of the Pine Street Church 
in Harrisburg. 

Class of 1935 
Wayne, Pennsylvania 

S. Carson Wasson was born in Churchville, 
Maryland, on December 9, 1908. He was grad- 
uated by Johns Hopkins University in 1930 and 
by Princeton Seminary in 1935. After serving 



as Assistant Pastor at St. Paul Church, Phila- 
delphia, for two years, he became Pastor of the 
First Church of Jeannette, Pennsylvania, where 
he served for three years. Since 1940 he has 
been Pastor of the Church at Wayne, Pennsyl- 

He is Chairman of the General Council’s 
Special Committee on Monday Morning, Book 
Review Editor of The Presbyterian, and several 
of his articles have appeared in the Atlantic 

Inserted in this Bulletin is the ballot 
for Alumni Trustees. Please follow the 
instructions carefully and mail your ballot 
immediately. Due to delay in the publica- 
tion of this Bulletin certification of the 
results of the election will be made to the 
Secretary of the Board of Trustees as 
soon after February 1st, 1947, as possible. 


A three-year course leading to the de- 
gree of M.R.E. (Prin.) for college gradu- 
ates, both men and women, and designed 
to prepare them for full time Christian 
service as teachers of the Christian re- 
ligion in schools and colleges, directors of 

religious education, ministers’ assistants, 
missionary educators at home and abroad. 
For further information address : 
Edward Howell Roberts 
Princeton Theological Seminary 
Princeton, N.J. 


Chaplains continue to return home from 
the service. Many of them are taking re- 
fresher courses at the Seminary. They 
wish to secure churches as soon as possible. 
Their most difficult problem is securing a 
hearing, as the Committee of a vacant 
church cannot hear them preach in their 
own church, for they have none as yet. The 
General Assembly has wisely advised that 

no candidate be heard in the pulpit of a 
vacant church until the committee on se- 
curing a pastor is ready to recommend 
him unanimously to the congregation. 

Alumni can render a great service to 
the returning Chaplains by offering their 
pulpits to them for a Sunday. If you are 
ready to do this please communicate with 
the Office of the Dean of the Seminary. 




[ 1893] 

On Thanksgiving Day Dean Richmond Leland 
returned to his former parish, the Tyler Place 
Church, St. Louis, Mo., to be the Golden Jubilee 

[ 1903 ] 

G. M. Whitenack, Jr., is head of the Depart- 
ment of Mathematics at the National Farm 
School and Junior College, Doylestown, Pa. 

[ 1913 ] 

On January 1st William B. Bell will become 
Minister of Education in Immanuel Church, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

[ 1915 1 

H. Ray Shear has been called by Pittsburgh- 
Xenia Seminary to the chair of Homiletics and 
Practical Theology. 

[ 1917] 

Edward G. Seel has relinquished his work in 
Colombia to accept the Presidency of The Poly- 
technic Institute, San Germain, Puerto Rico. 

Ernest E. Eels is in charge of the Atlanta, 
Ga., Office of the Presbyterian Minister’s Fund. 

[ 1919 ] 

The First Church of Lake Crystal, Minn., has 
called J. Rhys Roberts. 

On November 25th Frederick Schweitzer was 
inaugurated as President of Bloomfield College 
and Seminary. 

[ 1922 ] 

Walter A. Groves has been called to the 
Presidency of Centre College, Danville, Ky. 

The State Department has sent Robert F. 
Ogden to Syria and Lebanon as Chief Public 
Affairs Officer. 

[ 1924 ] 

Morris Zutrau is working as a missionary 
with The Friends of Israel in San Francisco, 

[ 1925 ] 

Raymond I. Brahams has been elected a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of Occidental Col- 
lege, Los Angeles, Calif. 

Woodridge O. Johnson, Jr., has been called 
to the Faculty of Park College, Parkville, Mo. 

[ 1929 ] 

Paul N. Poling, pastor of the First Church of 
El Paso, Texas, has accepted the position of 
Director of the Department of Social Education 
and Action under the Board of Christian Educa- 

[ 1930 ] 

James M. Barnett has accepted a call to the 
church at Bellevue, Pa. 

The church at Waterman, 111., has called 
Adolph F. Broman. 

Harry J. Scheidemantle has accepted a call 
from the First Church of Columbus Grove, 

[ 1931 ] 

After serving as a Chaplain in the Navy, C. 
Ransom Comfort, Jr., was installed on Septem- 
ber 4 as pastor of the Fourth Church, Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

[ 1932 ] 

The First and Osborn Churches of Cedarville. 
N.J., have called Rowland H. White, who had 
served as a Chaplain in the Navy. 

[ 1934 ] 

James Aiken, Jr., has accepted a call from 
the Arlington Heights Church, Ft. Worth, 

On November 25th George Wendell Jung was 
installed as Vice President of Bloomfield Col- 
lege and Seminary. 

Lynn B. Rankin is now pastor of the First 
Church of Pikeville, Ky. 

David L. Wood is minister to students at 
Mississippi State College, State College, Miss. 

[ 1935 1 

Major Glen Cowden Shaffer has been as- 
signed Command Chaplain of the European 
Transport Service. His wife and son expect to 
join him in Wiesbaden, Germany. 

[ 1936 ] 

During the summer L. David Cowie, pastor 
of the Linwood Church, Kansas City, Mo., made 
an extended visit to Latin America. On a Sun- 
day morning he preached in the Union Evan- 
gelical Church, Guatemala City. 

Frank R. Neff is Assistant Professor of Bible 



and Chaplain of Trinity University, San An- 
tonio, Texas. 

James E. Spivey has been installed pastor of 
the First Church, Bartlesville, Okla. 

Centenary College, Shreveport, La., has ap- 
pointed Leroy Vogel as Professor of European 

[ 1937 ] 

Harold S. Faust has been called to Christ 
Church, Overbrook Hills, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The church at Windsor, N.Y., has called 
Francis H. Scott and he has accepted. 

John A. Troxler has accepted a call to the 
Westminster Church, Decatur, Ala. 

The church at Freeport, Pa., has called Wil- 
liam G. Vincent. 

Allan Winn has been installed pastor of the 
Third Church, Trenton, N.J. 

[ 1938] 

On December nth Bryant M. Kirkland was 
installed pastor of the First Church, Haddon- 
field, N.J. 

Vernon P. Martin, Jr., is Director of the 
Westminster Foundation at the University of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The Birchwood Church, Bellingham, Wash., 
has called Everett O. Williams. 

[ 1939 ] 

Norman McCowan Dunsmore has left for 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, where he will be working 
among university students. 

T. Murdock Hale has accepted a call to the 
First Church, Barre, Vermont. 

Manuel F. Conceicao is serving a mission field 
at Lisbon, Portugal. 

Harry K. Gayley has accepted a call to the 
pastorate of the Elkland and Osceola Churches, 

After a term of study at the Seminary, Homer 
L. Goddard, Jr., has returned to his pastorate 
of the church at Walnut Creek, Calif. 

Donald C. Kerr has accepted a call from the 
Benedict Memorial Church, New Haven, Conn. 

Samuel G. Warr has been called to the First 
Church of Williamsport, Pa. 

[ i94i ] 

Duncan N. Naylor is serving as a Chaplain 
in the regular Army. 

George L. Rentschler is serving as assistant 
pastor of the First Church, Birmingham, Mich. 

[ 1942 ] 

William J. J. Herron is now the leader of the 
Wales Region of Toe H, a British interdenom- 
inational movement for men. He is Editor of 

The New Forum , a new Christian Quarterly in 

The church at Scottdale, Pa., has called Wil- 
liam R. Johnston. 

Gustavus Warfield has accepted a call to the 
Dewey Avenue Church of Rochester, N.Y. 

[ 1943 ] 

Michael R. Costanzo has accepted a call from 
the College Hill Church, Cincinnati, Ohio, to 
serve as minister of Christian Education. 

Theodore A. Gill is studying at the University 
of Zurich, Switzerland. 

On September 27 th Otto Gruber was installed 
pastor of the First Church of La Salle, Colo. 

Greer S. Imbrie is studying at the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, Scotland. 

Joe L. Jensen, Jr., has been called to the pas- 
torate of the church at Mason City, 111. 

On October 22 nd Joseph E. McCabe was in- 
stalled pastor of the First Church of Lambert- 
ville, N.J. 

Robert Lewis was installed pastor of the 
Church of the Messiah, Paterson, N.J., in Oc- 

Robert K. Staley, Jr., is a student at the Uni- 
versity of Zurich, Switzerland. 

[ 1944] 

Frank Carter has undertaken work as Direc- 
tor of Religious Education in the First Church 
of Enid, Okla. 

B. Franklin Elser is teaching in the Wasatch 
Academy, Mount Pleasant, Utah. 

Malcolm McCullough has left for his mission 
field at Changteh, Hunan, China. 

Allen G. Moore has accepted a call to the 
church at Aberdeen, Md. 

The First Church of Springport and the 
churches of Union Springs and Cayuga, N.Y., 
have called Andrew F. O’Connor. 

Merlin F. Rood is serving as assistant pastor 
in the church at Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Daniel C. Thomas is serving as assistant pas- 
tor in the North Avenue Church, New Rochelle, 

Bokko Tsuchiyama, while waiting for per- 
mission of the State Department to return to 
his homeland, has accepted the invitation of the 
Seattle Pacific College, Seattle, Wash., to teach 
Christian Theology, Christian Ethics, Biblical 
Theology, Religions of the World, Missionary 
Principles and Christian Education. 

[ 1945 ] 

Henry Bajema has accepted a call from the 
Christian Reformed Church of Lebanon. His 
address is R.R.i, Sioux City, Iowa 



Kenneth R. Boyd is associate pastor of the 
Park Boulevard Church, Oakland, Calif. 

Paul L. Morris is pastor of the church at 
Holmes, Pa. 

The church at New Salem, Pa., called Robert 
E. Osman and he has begun his work with that 

John T. Underwood is studying Korean at 
the Institute of Chinese Languages and Litera- 
ture. His address is 116 Park Ave., Hamden, 

Paul D. Votaw has gone from the Newman 
School of Missions in Jerusalem to the Ameri- 
can Mission at Beirut, Syria. 

Jack W. Ware was installed pastor of the 
Prospect Heights Church, Brooklyn, N.Y., on 
December io. 


Suran W. Antablin, pastor, East Trenton 
Church, Trenton, N.J. 

Peter James Bakker, pastor, Baptist Church, 
Cottage Grove, Oregon. 

William O. Bembower, pastor, Mount Calvary 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Carl E. Blanford, pastor, Post Falls, Idaho. 

Keene Hedges Capers, Chaplain in the United 
States Navy. 

Arnold V. Cigliano, assistant pastor, First 
Church, New Rochelle, N.Y. 

Robert A. Cornett, pastor in the Christian 

George R. Cox, Jr., pastor, First Church, 
New Gretna, N.J. 

Richard E. Craven, assistant pastor, Third 
Church, Elizabeth, N.J. 

John A. Cressman, pastor, Alexandria First 
Church, Milford, N.J. 

Albert G. Dezso, pastor, Waverly Park 
Church, Newark, N.J. 

William R. Dupree, pastor, Frenchtown, N.J. 

Benjamin Hoyt Evans, pastor, Presbyterian 
Church (U.S.), Franklin, N.C. 

Duane U. Farris, assistant pastor, Kennett 
Square, Pa. 

Donald H. Gard, further study, University 
of Zurich, Switzerland. 

Manfred L. Geisler, further study in Medicine, 
Graduate School, Denver University, Denver, 

William A. Gibson, Jr., pastor, Susquehanna, 

Alan G. Gripe, foreign missions, present ad- 
dress 712 Wright Street, Manila, P.I. 

Graden John Grobe, pastor, First Church, 
Alta, Iowa. 

Roger A. Huber, assistant pastor, Second 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 

James W. Huling, pastor, Delaware Water 
Gap, Pa. 

William S. James, further study, Edinburgh, 

Glen M. Johnson, stated supply, Three Hills, 
Alberta, Canada. 

James Hackett Johnson, assistant pastor, Lin- 
coln Ave. Church, Pasadena, Calif. 

Harold B. Keen, assistant pastor, First 
Church, Jamestown, N.Y. 

Robert Kevorkian, further study, Eastern 
Baptist Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Marcus Allen Kimble, assistant pastor, First 
Church, Westfield, N.J. 

Thomas W. Kirkman, Jr., assistant pastor. 
House of Hope Church, St. Paul, Minn. 

Norman A. Krebbs, further study, University 
of Chicago, Chicago, 111 . 

Henry A. Kuehl, Jr., teacher in Moravian 
College and Seminary, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Robert W. McClellan, pastor, Frankford 
Church, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Robert Owen McLeod, pastor, Keewatin, 

William Lawrence Meyer has left for his 
mission field in China. 

Harold L. Meyers, Jr., assistant pastor, Cove- 
nant Church, Springfield, Ohio 

Winston Thure Moberg, not yet settled. 

David A. Neely, pastor, Ray land, Ohio, for- 
eign missions later. 

John Edward Neff, national missions, Purs- 
glove, W.Va. 

Richard E. Neumann, pastor, First Church, 
Roscoe, N.Y. 

Albert B. Newport, pastor, Wissahickon, Pa. 

Samuel G. Orlandi, further study, Princeton 

Harry P. Phillips, Jr., further study, Edin- 
burgh, Scotland. 

John I. Prather, pastor, Deerfield, N.J. 

Richard C. Redfield, further study. Present 
address 351 Maripose Ave., Los Angeles, Calif. 

John D. Reid, assistant pastor, Westside 
Church, Englewood, N.J. 

Alfonso A. Rodriguez, further study, Prince- 
ton Seminary. 

Arthur H. Rust, pastor, Presbyterian Church 
(U.S.), Live Oak, Fla. 

Edward V. Stein, Director of Christian Edu- 
cation, Angeles Mesa Church, Los Angeles, 

Ernest A. Toth, pastor, First Church, Bril- 
liant, Ohio. 



Robert S. Vogt, assistant pastor, Calvary 
Church, San Francisco, Calif. 

Allison Flint Williams, further study, Union 
Seminary, Richmond, Va. 

Robert Spence Williamson, national missions, 
Swananoa, N.C. 

Paul Hunter Wilson, pastor, Northville, N.Y. 
Frank Thomas Woodward, further study, 
Princeton Seminary. 

Robert C. Young, assistant pastor, Second 
Church, Kansas City, Mo. 


This popular quarterly review now en- 
ters its fourth year of publication as a 
leader in theological thought in America 
and abroad. The January issue has as its 
central theme “The Holy Spirit and the 
Christian Life.” 

John A. Mackay, Editor 


$2.00 a year. Canada $2.2 5. Foreign $2.50. 
Please address : 


Princeton, N.J. 




Light from the Ancient Past — the Ar- 
cheological Background of the Hehrew- 
Christian Religion, by Jack Finegan. 
Princeton University Press, 1946. Pp. 
xxxiv + 500 + 204 illustrations on 1 16 ex- 
tra pages in nine groups in the volume. 

The author of this book, who is a pupil of the 
late Professor Hans Lietzmann, is a minister 
of the Disciples of Christ and director of reli- 
gious activities at Iowa State College, Ames, la. 
He has given us a very comprehensive work 
beginning with the predynastic periods in Baby- 
lonia and Egypt and concluding with the church- 
es of Constantinople. The book contains nine 
main divisions, of which four are related to the 
Old Testament : Mesopotamian Beginnings, The 
Panorama of Egypt, Penetrating the Past in 
Palestine, Empires of Western Asia — Assyria, 
Chaldea and Persia. 

The first 208 pages are devoted to the Orien- 
tal panorama of the Old Testament. Dr. Fine- 
gan has consulted the latest archaeological 
works, which are carefully cited in the foot- 
notes; for this reason the book serves a useful 
purpose in putting the student on the right 
track of the latest literature of the subject. The 
writer, however, does not merely present archae- 
ology, but also Oriental history in his resumes 
of Egypt, Babylonia from the earliest times to 
the Chaldeans, Assyria, and Persia. The history 
of the Hittites, however, has been dismissed 
with two pages; in this connexion there is an 
inconsistency in writing Hittite names ; Sub- 
biluliuma does not have final -sh, which is used 
in the cases of the names of the other Hittite 
kings. No history of the Hebrew kingdoms is 
given, but we find an excellent summary of the 
archaeological periods in Palestine and of the 
excavations and discoveries relating to Hebrew 
times. About half a page is devoted to Alexander 
the Great and a page and a half to his succes- 
sors. Ras Shamra receives three pages, and 
here Finegan notes a connexion between Ugari- 
tic Zabul and Beelzebub (Mark 3 122) ; the rela- 
tion, however, would have been brought out 
still closer if he had quoted the Greek form 
Beelzebul in the N.T. passage and compared 
it with Ugaritic Z e bul Ba'al (abode of Baal), 
where Z e bul may be personified as deity. 

On account of the immense field covered, ine- 
qualities of emphasis in history are bound to 
occur in a work of this nature. An impression 
of disjointedness, however, might have been 
somewhat avoided if a synchronistic table had 
been offered and correlations made with im- 
portant landmarks in the “Hebrew-Christian 
Religion.” The migration of Abraham from 
Mesopotamia “in response to a divine call and 
promise” is recognized (p. 57) as “the initial 
act of faith which made possible the unfolding 
of all later Hebrew history.” The writer, how- 
ever, does not pursue Biblical Theology any 
further, but sees close connexions with Egypt 
(p. 1 16) : “In Egypt it has also been possible 
to trace ‘the dawn of conscience’ which meant 
so much to the Hebrew prophets and to all 

The author’s main interest, however, is in 
New Testament archaeology, and in 250 pages 
five sections are devoted to this field: The Holy 
Land in the Time of Jesus, Following Paul 
the Traveler, Manuscripts Found in the Sand, 
Exploring the Catacombs and Studying the 
Sarcophagi, and The Story of Ancient Church- 
es. Section VII on the manuscripts is interest- 
ing and informing, but in the third part Finegan 
concentrates on the manuscripts of Paul’s let- 
ters. In a work of this sort we should have ex- 
pected a discussion of Biblical manuscripts in 
general. In this connexion he refers (p. 324) 
to “a double leaf of a papyrus codex, written 
in a hand probably of the fourth century, and 
containing verses from different parts of the 
Septuagint.” Since this book is devoted to the 
whole Bible, it seems very strange that he does 
not bring in the Chester Beatty papyri of the 
Old Testament nor mention the John H. Scheide 
Biblical papyri (Ezekiel) of the late second or 
early third century A.D. A discussion of Hebrew 
manuscripts and the finds of the Genizah also 
would have been in order. On p. 352 Finegan 
observes that “the certainty with which the 
text of the New Testament is established ex- 
ceeds that of any other ancient book.” The 
reviewer believes that we could also maintain 
that from a study of the Masoretic text in com- 
parison with the ancient versions we know as 
much about the text of the Old Testament as 
we do of that of Shakespeare. 

The illustrations are excellent and contain a 
wealth of concrete information. Six maps and 



four plans, which add to the usefulness of the 
book, are included. An index of Scriptural 
quotations and a full general index are appended 
to the volume. The author is to be commended 
for having done this comprehensive survey so 
well, and the Princeton University Press is to 
be congratulated for having produced this hand- 
some volume. The book can be read by the 
layman without difficulty, and it can be used 
with profit by the scholar and all students of 
the Bible. 

Henry S. Gehman 

The River Jordan: Being an Illustrated 
Account of Earth's most Storied River , 
by Nelson Glueck. The Westminster Press, 
Philadelphia, 1946. Pp. xvi + 268. $3.50. 

This is a fascinating work on Palestinian 
geography written by the world’s leading author- 
ity on the archaeology of Transjordan. Dr. 
Glueck, who is on leave of absence from the 
Hebrew Union College, where he is professor 
of Bible and Biblical Archaeology, is now the 
Director of the American School of Oriental 
Research at Jerusalem. He is thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the land and the people of Pales- 
tine, Transjordan, and the region between the 
Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqabah, and his per- 
sonality is reflected upon almost every page. 
The work not only contains facts, but is written 
with a literary sense and a religious apprecia- 
tion of the Land and the Book; numerous 
quotations from Scripture, both Old and New 
Testament, are given at appropriate places. 
Glueck well says : “Palestine became spiritu- 
ally what the facts of geography had made it 
physically, the focal point of the world, with 
Jerusalem its central city and the Jordan the 
world’s central stream.” This river was central 
in the lives of Elijah, John the Baptist, and 
Jesus, and for this reason as well as others the 
book is well named. 

The work contains eight chapters: The Jor- 
dan Rift, The Lake District, “A Garden of 
God,” The Highlands of Transjordan, Moun- 
tain Streams and Valley Cities: (1) The Lower 
Basin, (2) The Upper Basin, Path of Pilgrims, 
! and The Plains of Moab. 

It is important to read this book for the 
latest identification of certain sites. Thus Abel- 
meholah is placed at Tell el-Maqlub on the 
Wadi Yabis (River Jabesh), east of the Jor- 
dan. The original site of Beth-jeshimoth is 
located not at Khirbet Suweimeh, but at Tell 

Azeimeh to the east. The Brook Cherith may 
have been one of the easternmost branches of 
the Wadi Yabis. Jabesh-gilead is located on 
this wadi at the double site of Tell Abu Kharaz 
and Tell el-Meqbereh; in I Kings 17:1, where 
the provenance of Elijah is given, Glueck pro- 
poses the reading: “Elijah the Jabeshite, of 

This authoritative book is never dull. Varia- 
tions of climate in Palestine are thus vividly de- 
scribed : “I have on a December day sat and 
soaked up the sunshine in Jericho, and then 
driven to Jerusalem an hour later to shiver in 
the wintry blasts at large there.” A graphic de- 
scription of Rahab the harlot is given in con- 
nexion with Jericho. In epigrammatic fashion 
Herod the Great is characterized as a champion 
of the Jews, a friend of the Romans, and an ad- 
mirer of the Greeks ; in speaking of the end of 
this king, Glueck observes that he spent his 
last days in Jericho, “rotting away into a miser- 
able death, like an overipe melon in the hot 
sun.” The book abounds with such flashes. 

With his archaeological interests Glueck gives 
us some idea of the span of time through which 
civilization has passed. By combining the evi- 
dence of the Mount Carmel caves and the city 
of Jericho “one can sketch an outline of man’s 
activities in Palestine for a period of over one 
hundred thousand years.” The observation is 
also made that five or six thousand, perhaps even 
seven thousand, years ago irrigation agriculture 
was practised in the plains of Moab and through- 
out most of the Jordan Valley. Yet with it all, 
the place of God in history remains paramount. 

A special feature of the work is the one hun- 
dred-thirteen full-page pictures, which in them- 
selves are worth more than the price of the 
volume. The sinuous course of the Jordan is 
well illustrated on a number of these plates. An 
excellent map of Palestine is included inside 
both covers, and indexes to the text and to the 
Biblical citations appear at the end of the book. 
Glueck has succeeded in making the ancient 
past live in the present situation, and the re- 
viewer heartily recommends this fine work to 
all ministers as well as to students and teachers 
of the Bible. 

Henry S. Gehman 

The Apocryphal Literature: A Brief 
Introduction, by Charles Cutler Torrey. 
Yale University Press, New Haven, 1945. 
pp. x+151. $3.00. 

Ever since May, 1827, when the British and 
Foreign Bible Society adopted the rule against 



the circulation “of those Books, or parts of 
Books, which are usually termed Apocryphal,” 
the use of the Apocrypha in the churches of both 
England and the United States has dwindled to 
a very low ebb. The value of the Apocrypha for 
the Bible student, however, cannot be overes- 
timated, for these books contain the source ma- 
terial not only for the history of the intertesta- 
mental period, but also for the significant theo- 
logical developments which prepared in so many 
ways the setting for the New Testament period. 
This brief but thorough survey of the use of 
the Apocrypha in the Church (Part I), and of 
each of the books themselves (Part II), by 
such a competent authority as Dr. Torrey is in- 
deed a welcome boon not only to Biblical schol- 
arship in general, but to the teacher and stu- 
dent in the classroom in particular. 

It should be made clear at the outset that 
Dr. Torrey includes in the term “apocrypha” 
both groups of books commonly classified as 
“apocrypha and pseudepigrapha.” In this he 
follows Jerome and the early church. He also 
suggests the rabbinic designation, “the outside 
books,” as an equally admirable term. It is for 
this reason that instead of the usual twelve or 
fifteen (depending on whether the Additions to 
Daniel are taken individually or as a whole) 
books discussed in the “introductions” to the 
Apocrypha, 1 there are twenty-six different works 
discussed in this volume. When compared with 
the great corpus of this literature in English, 
edited by R. H. Charles ( The Apocrypha and 
Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 2 vols. 
Oxford, 1913), the present work is found to lack 
four books, namely, “The Letter of Aristeas,” 
“Pirke Aboth,” “The Story of Ahikar” and 
“The Fragments of a Zadokite Work.” It in- 
cludes two works, however, which are not found 
in Charles’s edition, namely, “The Testament 
of the Twelve Patriarchs” and “The Lives of 
the Prophets.” The author also asserts that “we 
have no particle of evidence of a separate docu- 
ment, Jewish or Christian, that could be en- 
titled ‘The Martyrdom of Isaiah’” (p. 135). 
In the discussion of each individual work in 
the second part of the book, the original lan- 
guage, date and contents are given, together 
with the pertinent bibliography. 

On page seven, in a footnote, the author con- 
veniently classifies the apocryphal literature ac- 

1 Cf. Oesterley, W.O.E., An Introduction to 
the Books of the Apocrypha, London, 1937 ; 
Goodspeed, E.J., The Story of the Apocrypha, 
Chicago, 1939. Both of these, by the way, are 
omitted from Torrey’s bibliography on the Apoc- 
rypha on p. 43. 

cording to the original language in which each 
book was written. One might infer from this 
listing that no problems any longer exist in re- 
gard to this matter, but that is certainly not the 
case. In fact, throughout the book the author 
presents his views again and again as final with- 
out giving enough evidence or proof, and with- 
out giving other points of view. This is due of 
course to the limited amount of space that can 
be devoted to technical problems in a work like 

As a concise, up-to-date and authoritative dis- 
cussion of the apocryphal literature, this book 
is heartily recommended. Every Bible student 
should own this trustworthy guide into a rela- 
tively unknown, yet important, field of Biblical 

Charles T. Fritsch 

Revelation in Jewish Wisdom Litera- 
ture, by J. Coert Rylaarsdam. The Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1946. 
Pp. 128. $3.00. 

The problem of revelation has in recent 
years become increasingly important for theo- 
logical and Biblical studies. On the one hand, 
there are those who approach theology from 
the point of view of a comparative study of 
religions, looking upon the Old Testament as ;i 
merely the history of the growth of the Jewish 
religion. On the other hand, the neo-Orthodox 
school stresses the supernatural and transcenden- 
tal character of revelation. In other words, 
“Does the human mind in its exercise of free- 
dom and in its capacity for observation, experi- 
mentation, and analysis, discover the true way 
of life. ... Or are men, at least some of them, 
given special aid over and above this ‘natural’ 
endowment?” Within the confines of Jewish 
Wisdom literature, i.e., the books of Proverbs, 
Job, Ecclesiastes, the Wisdom of Jesus ben 
Sirach, the Wisdom of Solomon, Baruch, IV 
Maccabees and the Pirke Aboth, the author 
deals with this problem. Dr. Rylaarsdam’s point 
of view is clearly set forth in his defining the 
problem of revelation as “the manner and means 
in and by which men come to possess a knowl- 
edge both of the true goals of life and of the 
way by which they can attain them.” 

The author points out that common to Egyp- 
tian, Babylonian and Jewish Wisdom Litera- 
ture are certain basic doctrines, such as rewards 
for goodness, the doctrine of duty, the creature- 
liness of man, and the hidden, divine design of 
providence. According to this book, this school 
of Wisdom in Israel began apparently unre- 



lated to the national religious tradition; this is 
clearly shown in the canonical books of Prov- 
erbs, Job and Ecclesiastes. Later, however, it 
was submerged by and lost in the rabbinism 
which identified Wisdom with the Divine Torah. 

According to Rylaarsdam, there have been 
two classes of thinkers throughout the history 
of the Wisdom movement, whether in Israel 
or among the other nations of antiquity, namely, 
the optimists and the pessimists. For the former 
the problem of revelation is not acute. For them 
the world is governed by reason and morality, 
the ultimate norm of which man is able to dis- 
cover by his own rational faculties. Those who 
obey Yahweh will be rewarded in this life, since 
Yahweh is not only sovereign, but rational and 
moral as well. This search for wisdom carried 
on by man is unaided by any divine initiative 
or special gift. Not that the religious character 
is lost sight of, since man is a creature, en- 
dowed by God with rational faculties ; revela- 
tion, in this way, is purely natural by virtue of 
man’s creation. 

The author continues in Chapter IV by stat- 
ing that for the pessimists within the Wisdom 
School, the problem of revelation is of supreme 
importance. The writers of Job and Ecclesi- 
astes despair of understanding the nature of life. 
Life is disappointing and seemingly irrational. 
God is inscrutable and so are his ways. God 
does not even seem to be true to the moral 
character ascribed to him. A sense of tragedy 
and futility pervades the writings of the earlier 
pessimists. The only alternative to complete 
despair was the introduction of grace. A strong 
tendency towards “irrationalism” became appar- 
ent, though the “line between the two focuses, 
nature and grace, does not seem to have bro- 
ken.” Divine Wisdom now becomes the inter- 
mediary between the inscrutable God and de- 
spairing man. Empirical verification is surrend- 
ered; the new faith relies upon the Law as an 
unerring expression of the Divine Wisdom. 

Since Divine Wisdom became the instru- 
ment of special enlightenment and revelation, 
the writer maintains in Chapter V, it is but 
natural that it be compared with the concept of 
Spirit. In the Wisdom of Solomon the functions 
attributed by the Old Testament writers to the 
Spirit are transferred to Divine Wisdom. But 
the Spirit, unlike Wisdom, was never identified 
with the Law. As a result, it remained “con- 
temporaneous with the world into which it 
came.” In this way, by the transference of the 
functions of the Spirit to Divine Wisdom, the 
latter was fully centered in human conscious- 
ness and experience. 

In an unfortunate conclusion, the author 
pleads for more freedom within the Church for 
the movement of the Spirit. Such men as 
“Luther, Fox, Wesley, and many others were 
nourished by the inner light of the Spirit that 
made them ‘speak with authority’ — they had a 
living Word, a Divine Wisdom.” It is to be 
questioned whether Paul’s settlement of doctri- 
nal issues by an appeal to his possession of the 
Spirit can be considered as normative for pres- 
ent day thinkers. How is one to test the Spirit? 
Since the Spirit’s role lies “in the intimacy of 
individual human experience” all objectivity is 
lost. Any Joseph Smith, Charles Taze Russell, 
or Father Divine may claim possession of the 
Spirit, and who is to say him, Nay? 

John Wm. W evers 

The Re-Discovery of the Old Testa- 
ment, by H. H. Rowley. The Westminster 
Press, Philadelphia, 1946. Pp. 320. $3.00. 

We are indebted to the scholars of the nine- 
teenth century for a scientific historical outlook 
on the Old Testament. Due to linguistic and 
archaeological discoveries as well as historical 
and literary studies, the Old Testament Scrip- 
tures have become a fascinating record of an- 
cient times. The covenant people are no longer 
looked upon as living in a vacuum, but as mov- 
ing in the historical milieu of their times. It 
is no longer necessary to depend merely upon 
the Old Testament for historical materials; a 
vast amount of evidence has been made avail- 
able to us in the course of the last one hundred 
years to supplement our knowledge of ancient 

But a historical approach to the Scriptures 
is not enough. Great as the contributions of the 
schools of historical and literary criticism have 
been, a mere historical understanding of the 
Old Testament is not the goal of Biblical study. 
The Bible is not primarily a text-book for his- 
tory; it is a revelation of God’s dealings with 
men and His purpose for their lives. A re-dis- 
covery of the Old Testament as a religious book, 
as a book filled with spiritual values, becomes 
increasingly necessary. In his latest book Dr. 
Rowley gives to his readers “a fuller apprehen- 
sion of the religious meaning of this most won- 
derful Book.” The author, however, in no way 
minimizes his indebtedness to the former gen- 
eration of scholars ; rather he attempts to inte- 
grate the results of scientific study of the Old 
Testament with a theological approach and on 
the basis of this integration to re-discover it<* 
spiritual values. 



The author has succeeded admirably in popu- 
larizing the distinctive message of the Old Tes- 
tament without sacrificing scholarship. There 
is no elaborate documentation; the book is not 
intended for specialists, but for the intelligent 
reader who, though interested in what the Old 
Testament has to say, has not had technical 
training in the minutiae of scholarship. Not 
that the foundations are disregarded; the au- 
thor rather builds upon them. Each chapter 
deals with a distinct aspect of the Old Testa- 
ment. In particular, the chapters on “The Goal 
of History” and “The Fulfilment of the Old Tes- 
tament in the New” constitute a much-needed 
corrective for the study of Old Testament Mes- 
sianism and Prophecy. 

The tendency in the last century of Old Tes- 
tament scholarship has been to regard the Old 
Testament as a record of man’s groping after 
God. Since the appearance of Walther Eich- 
rodt’s epochal three-volume Theologie des Alten 
Testaments (1933-39), however, more and more 
scholars are recognizing the Old Testament as 
a record of God’s progressive revelation to man. 
Formerly, in one school of thought prophecy 
was regarded as a “purely human process.” 
Many moderns “have traced the prophet’s word 
no further than to himself, and have dissolved 
all revelation into discovery. In their hands the 
story of prophecy has become the story of men’s 
interest in men, or of their search after a God 
who may or may not exist, but who is at best 
relevant only as the goal of the process, and 
not as an agent.” Prophets, according to Row- 
ley, are “messengers of God, extensions of the 
divine personality. . . . The prophet’s message 
was always first and foremost a revelation of 

But the fact that God reveals Himself in the 
Old Testament does not mean that revelation 
is static. There is evident throughout the Can- 
on a progressive perception of the character 
of God. Thus in the early history of Israel, 
the people looked upon the ruthless slaughter 
of the inhabitants of Jericho and other cities as 
bearing the full approval of Yahweh. Through 
a gradual sensitivizing of their ethical percep- 
tion, however, Israel learns to see God as a 
God who loves justice and mercy, and has ap- 
pointed His people as agents of redemption. 

It is for that purpose that Israel is chosen. 
The Exodus is the great redemptive act in the 
Old Testament, and it colors all of later his- 
tory and prophecy. But to consider the deliver- 
ance from Egypt as a redemption merely for 
Israel’s own sake is to miss the goal of divine 
election. God’s choice of a nation or of indi- 

viduals is for service. Israel had a mission to 
perform ; she was to “mediate unto the world 
the treasures into which she was led.” This 
mission was most clearly seen in the Servant 
Songs of Deutero-Isaiah. The purpose of Is- 
rael’s election is “the service of God through 
the service of men, and the making known to 
the Gentiles of the character and will of God. 
The privilege and honour of Israel in being 
chosen of God is great indeed, but it is the 
privilege and honour of service.” 

This prophetic mission found its real fulfil- 
ment in Christ. In Christ “the hopes of the 
prophets were not so much realized as trans- 
muted, and given a higher realization than their 
authors dreamed.” But “in a far wider sense 
the New Testament gathers into itself the mis- 
sion and message of the Old.” In fact, “just as 
prophecies are transformed in the process of 
fulfilment, so in the wider field, the full sig- 
nificance of the Old is only seen in the light 
of the New.” To study the Old Testament with- 
out reference to the New is to miss the essen- 
tial unity of the complete revelation of God 

The author of this refreshing work began his 
teaching career on the mission field as Associate 
Professor of the Old Testament in the Shantung 
Christian University. He is now Professor of 
Semitic Languages and Literatures in the Vic- 
toria University of Manchester. 

John Wm. Wevers 

Eyes of Faith: A Study in the Biblical 
Point of View , by Paul Sevier Minear. 
Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 1946. 
p P- 3°7- $3-00. 

While after the first World War European 
Biblical scholarship placed increasing emphasis 
upon problems of Biblical theology American 
theologians were, in the whole, satisfied with the 
sterile continuation of textual, literary and his- 
torical criticism of the old liberal type. Not until 
the early forties did a change of outlook occur, 
and it took another half of a decade until the 
first serious reaction to the new European ap- 
proach came to light on this side of the Atlantic. 
To have done so is the great historical signifi- 
cance of Dr. M inear’s recent book. It is amply 
studded with quotations from Brunner, Buber, 
Kierkegaard, Hebert, N. Davey, Rowley, A. 
Guillaume and others, yet it is not a mere repeti- 
tion of what the Continentals have said and 
thought. Rather it is the answer given to Euro- 
pean theology by an American, who did not 
disdain taking it seriously. 



This book is not exactly a Biblical theology. 
Following a widespread trend in American 
theology it is a study in the fields of religious 
epistemology and psychology. But unlike so 
many other dissertations on this subject it 
takes its start from the Bible, not from philo- 
sophical speculations, for instance on the rela- 
tionship of reason and revelation. This depar- 
ture implies that the realities of which the Bible 
speaks have to be given full weight. Dr. Minear 
discovers that the Biblical epistemology is at 
least as consistent and realistic as any modern 
one. God is in the center of this whole book. 
Not a philosophical idea of God but rather a 
personal God who visits man and who has a 
purpose with him. The approach determines the 
division of the book. It is divided into four 
parts: 1) The angle of vision, which is God’s 
dealing with man in the history of the chosen 
people; 2) The focus of vision, which is the 
indirectness of divine self-communication, where- 
by God both conceals his message and confirms 
it; 3) The horizon of vision, which is the uni- 
versality of God’s purpose notwithstanding its 
beginning in a particular history; and 4) The 
re-vision of vision, when in the coming of the 
Messiah the whole purpose of God is both con- 
firmed to man and seen in a new light. 

Of special interest is the strong emphasis, 
which the author places upon the Old Testa- 
ment. This is probably more than a methodo- 
logical peculiarity. The full significance that 
the New Testament ascribes to Christ seems to 
escape the author. Jesus seems to renew the 
Old Testament revelation on a higher level, 
rather than to bring to a consummation all the 
incipient movements found in the history of 
Israel. However, one would do injustice to this 
rich and thoughtful book by measuring it with 
the yardstick of an established orthodoxy. It 
is the greatness and the promise of our time that 
the Bible is studied afresh. We begin to realize 
that the sacred formulae of ancient creeds may 
sometimes form walls that keep us away from 
a genuine understanding of the Word of God. 
The author is anxious to grasp the Biblical 
views in their strangeness and freshness. Any- 
body who is willing to participate in that en- 
deavor will find stimulating guidance in Dr. 
Minear’s work. 

Otto A. Piper 

Prophecy and the Church , by Oswald 
T. Allis. Presbyterian and Reformed Pub- 
lishing Co., Philadelphia, 1945. Pp. ix + 
339. $2.50. 

Dispensationalism has become a real problem 
for the church, especially with the wide circula- 
tion of the Scofield Reference Bible, whose notes 
have supplanted the teachings and the emphases 
of the Catechism in the minds of many serious 
Christians. Following the heresy trial which the 
Presbyterian Church US arranged against 
President Lewis I. Chafer, Dr. Allis has pro- 
ceeded to a comprehensive refutation of Dispen- 
sationalism. He regards three views as typical 
of this group : the Parenthesis Church, the Any 
Moment Coming, and the decisive role played 
by the Jewish Remnant during the millennium. 

The author has no difficulty in showing that 
the idea of the church existing in between two 
phases of Jewish history and not being related 
to the latter, can be advanced only on the basis 
of a completely arbitrary handling of the Bible. 
The obvious inconsistencies of a Jewish millen- 
nium which has no relation to the saving pur- 
pose of God are also laid bare in a most con- 
vincing manner. The author has some more 
trouble with the idea of the Any Moment Com- 
ing, and the Dispensationalist distinction of the 
rapture advent and the revelation advent. Real- 
izing that the problem cannot be solved upon 
a purely exegetical basis he tries to minimize 
this distinction by holding that the two events 
will follow each other in short intervals. On the 
whole, however, it can be said that Dr. Allis 
has succeeded in demonstrating that Dispensa- 
tionalism rests upon arbitrary exegesis. 

If this learned volume will not convince many 
adherents of Scofield the fault will be largely 
the author’s. He seems to be unable to do jus- 
tice to the facts that brought Dispensationalism 
into being. He interprets this movement as 
though it were a theological school rather than 
a form of spiritual life. Furthermore, Dispensa- 
tionalism rightly presents Christianity as an 
eschatological religion. With his own amillen- 
nianism, the author ignores the fact that the 
Bible presents the purpose of God as being 
carried out in holy history, i.e., in a sequence 
of events, all of which form a whole and reveal 
a common underlying dynamic. By spiritualiz- 
ing most of the Old Testament prophecies the 
author shares with classical orthodoxy the alle- 
gorical method of interpretation, to which Darby 
and his followers rightly objected. Their fault 
does not lie in their literalism but rather in the 
fact that they are more interested in a consis- 
tent eschatology than a consistent view of the 
work of salvation. Finally, while the reviewer 
does not agree with the Dispensationalist view 
of the Jewish millennium he finds enough evi- 
dence in the New Testament to support the 



belief that Judaism is destined to play a decisive 
role in the ultimate phase of holy history. 

Otto A. Piper 

Aus Der Johannes-Apokalypse, dem 
let Men Buck der Bib el, by Karl Ludwig 
Schmidt. Verlag Heinrich Mayer, Basel, 
1945. Pp. 61. 

In the early spring of 1944, when the issue of 
the war was still unsettled and neutral Switzer- 
land was looking full of anxiety to the north, 
Karl Ludwig Schmidt, the well-known profes- 
sor of New Testament at the University of 
Basel, delivered six lectures on the Apocalypse 
over Radio Basel. His treatment of the enig- 
matic and yet so luring last book of the Bible 
made a deep impression upon the audience both 
for its ingenuous handling of so difficult a sub- 
ject and for the beauty of its language. I would 
wish to draw the attention of our theological 
publishers to this booklet for it deserves trans- 
lation into English. 

Professor Schmidt selects six themes from 
the whole Book of Revelation, thereby practi- 
cally exhausting all the major aspects of John’s 
visions. The significance of his exegesis lies in 
the fact that notwithstanding the author’s pro- 
found scholarship the Apocalypse is interpreted 
out of the context of the whole Bible. The au- 
thor combines contemporary with typological 
interpretation. He indicates that the book is 
speaking of the conflict of the Church with the 
Roman Empire but that in the struggle the 
characteristic features of the whole Christian 
history become manifest. With great energy he 
points in every instance to the realities of hu- 
man life and history that are expressed by the 
oftentimes bewildering imagery of the Apoca- 

This method enables the reader to see what 
the application of these visions is to the present 
world situation. But the author makes it plain 
that it is the eternal truth of Christ’s triumph, 
not the contemporary application, that should 
concern the reader in the first place. Here is a 
book that will be of real help to our lay people. 
It will endear to them a book which many abhor 
because they do not understand it, and of which 
others obviously make a wrong use. Professor 
Schmidt will open their eyes to the historical 
reality as it appears to the eyes of Christ. 

Otto A. Piper 

Berkeley Version of the New Testa- 
ment, from the original Greek with brief 

footnotes, by Gerrit Verkuyl. James J. 
Gillick & Co., Berkeley 4, Calif., 1945. 
Pp. v, 672. $3.00. 

After writing eight or nine books dealing with 
apologetics, Christian education, and personal 
devotions, Dr. Gerrit Verkuyl, an alumnus of 
Princeton Theological Seminary, set his hand 
to the production of another translation of the 
New Testament. His aim was to retain many of 
the cherished phrases of the King James Ver- 
sion while eliminating obsolete words and 

The format of the book is pleasing and con- 
venient for use. It is pocket size and has clear 
type in one column per page. Chapter and verse 
numerals have been removed to the margin. In 
the Gospels and Acts, headings on each page 
supply information regarding the chronological 
sequence of events. These data are in accord 
with one of the generally accepted systems of 
chronology. The words of direct discourse are 
enclosed in quotation marks, with the exception, 
oddly enough, of the words of our Lord. Ver- 
kuyl’s explanation for this distinction is, “As 
Christ is Himself the Word His sayings are not 
in quotation marks” (p. iv). The Epistle to the 
Hebrews is broken into sections and each divi- 
sion is provided with a descriptive title. 

The translation, so far as the reviewer has 
sampled it, is ordinarily forthright and vigorous. 
The following is an example, chosen at random : 
“Observe this : He who sows sparingly will also 
reap sparingly, while he who sows liberally 
will reap also liberally. Let each one give as in 
his heart he had planned, neither grudgingly 
nor by compulsion; for God loves a hilarious 
giver” (II Cor. 9 :6f.) . Occasionally the trans- 
lation lapses into colloquial or unidiomatic Eng- 
lish; for example, “[Herod] felt ugly toward 
the Tyrians” (Acts 12:20), and in Rom. 3:25b 
a sentence begins with “which” and so lacks a 
main verb. 

Almost every page is supplied with one or 
more explanatory footnotes. Most of these are 
characterized by sanctified common sense, al- 
though occasionally the author descends to mere 
moralizing. The following are samples of his 
comments. At his translation of Matt. 6 :6, 
“When you pray do not repeat and repeat as the 
pagans do,” Verkuyl drops a footnote, “Which 
applies to the words of this prayer. Too often 
they are not prayed but repeated. Leaders even 
say : Let us repeat the Lord’s prayer.” On Matt. 
12:34 he comments, “Those thinking of Jesus 
as an ever-smiling Santa Claus cannot have 
read His biography carefully.” At Mark 5 :20 



he defines the Decapolis as “Ten Cities, an as- 
sociation of towns mostly east of the Galilean 
lake, first colonized by Greeks under Alexan- 
der.” Regarding the absence of the boy Jesus 
from his family in Luke 2 143, he writes, “The 
boy was not tied to his mother’s apron strings.” 
At Rom. 4:5 he comments, “So beautifully do 
faith and behavior combine when Abraham 
offers Isaac, that James refers to it as illustra- 
ting works,” and at Rom. 8 :26, “All true prayer 
originates from God.” In connection with his 
translation of I Cor. 8:13, “Therefore if my 
eating causes my brother to stumble, I shall eat 
no meat forever, so that my brother shall not 
be tripped up,” he observes, “In the United 
States, especially in States west of Ohio, Chris- 
tians, who enjoy the use of tobacco or liquor, 
may well recall Paul’s considerateness.” He 
notices that Jude I4f. is quoted from the Book 
of Enoch. One is surprised that he looks with 
some favor upon the conjectural emendation, un- 
supported by any manuscript evidence, that 
Enoch is referred to in I Pet. 3:19. Occasion- 
ally he uses expressions or words of doubtful 
taste or secondary preference. Thus, in his com- 
ment on the wise and foolish virgins (Matt. 25) 
he refers to them as the bride’s “girl-friends,” 
and in the note to Philemon 9 he uses the form 
“embassador.” Perhaps a typographical error 
explains the phrase, “sympathetic cord,” in the 
footnote to John 7:17. 

Every translator of the New Testament must, 
first of all, decide which Greek text he will fol- 
low in passages where variant readings have 
been preserved. If one is not a textual critic by 
training he is on safer ground if he chooses a 
critical text edited by a recognized scholar. 
Verkuyl’s basic Greek, he says, is Tischendorf’s 
text, published in 1864-72. Now, although Tisch- 
endorf has had no peer in the work of collect- 
ing manuscript evidence, his forte was not the 
fine art of critical evaluation of the evidence 
which he had so assiduously assembled. Ver- 
kuyl would have done much better had he fol- 
lowed Westcott and Hort’s text of 1881, Souter’s 
text of 1910, von Soden’s of 1913, Vogel’s of 
1920, Merk’s of 1933, or Nestle’s of 1936 (16th 
edition). But, not only did Verkuyl choose a 
rather antiquated critical text, he also has dis- 
carded the critical gains of even this text in 
favor of certain readings in the unreliable textus 
receptus of the Middle Ages, upon which the 
King James translators had perforce to rely. 
(This is the exegesis of the cryptic and un- 
grammatical sentence in the Preface : “Also, 
of course, the Authorized Version, most words 
of which, not found in early Greek manuscripts, 

are shown in parentheses [in the Berkeley ver- 

Although it is unpleasant to do so, the re- 
viewer must call attention to a breach of pro- 
fessional etiquette of which the translator is 
guilty. On the title page, following his name, 
there stands the identifying phrase, “New Tes- 
tament Fellow of Princeton.” Many a reader, 
seeing “Princeton,” will think that Verkuyl 
refers to the University, although the Univer- 
sity has never had a New Testament fellow. 
Furthermore it is rather ingenuous for Dr. 
Verkuyl to call himself a New Testament fel- 
low without supplying a qualifying adverb such 
as “formerly” or “sometime,” for there have 
been about forty New Testament fellows since 
he was granted the annual fellowship in 1904. 

Unlike the recently published Revised Stand- 
ard Version, produced by a group of scholars, 
the Berkeley Version is the work of a single 
man. Obviously there is always an advantage 
in having one’s work checked by one’s collabo- 
rators. On the other hand, any Christian scholar 
is free to publish his own translation of the 
Scriptures in the hope that he may set forth the 
treasures of the Word of God in a new and 
vital manner for certain readers who may have 
never used a modern English rendering of the 
Scriptures, or who, for one reason or another, 
may be prejudiced against the Revised Standard 
Version. Such readers can profit from Verkuyl’s 
conscientious and consecrated labor embodied in 
the Berkeley Version. They should remember, 
however, that, like the private translations made 
by Weymouth, Moffatt, Goodspeed, Spencer, 
and others, this translation does not pretend to 
be a version sponsored by the Church and there- 
fore should not be read from the pulpit. 

Bruce M. Metzger 

New T estament Life and Literature , by 
Donald W. Riddle and Harold H. Hutson. 
The University of Chicago Press, Chi- 
cago, 1946. Pp. 263. $3.00. 

The authors of this book attempt an ambitious 
undertaking. They put within two covers ma- 
terial relating to New Testament history, New 
Testament introduction, and New Testament 
Biblical theology. Of these three areas, the sec- 
ond receives the fullest treatment, and the third 
receives the scantiest treatment. Riddle and 
Hutson, who not many years ago were in the 
relationship of professor and graduate student 
at the University of Chicago, stand in the tradi- 
tion of Shailer Matthews and Shirley Jackson 
Case. When this is known it becomes perfectly 



obvious why their treatment of the historical 
background of the New Testament is so much 
more satisfactory than their interpretation of 
the distinctively Christian elements within the 
New Testament. In reading their book one is 
struck by the truth in the Apostle Paul’s pro- 
nouncement, “The natural man receiveth not 
the things of the Spirit of God: for they are 
foolishness unto him : neither can he know them, 
because they are spiritually discerned” (I Cor. 

By manipulating two sieves, or, as the au- 
thors prefer to call them, techniques of Gospel 
investigation (pp. 67!) — namely, the test of con- 
gruity with the presumed environment (popu- 
larized by Case), and the improper use of form- 
criticism as substantiating historical judgments 
— the authors succeed in straining out of the 
Gospel narratives all the genuinely miraculous 
elements in the life of Jesus. The resulting 
“historical” Jesus differs in no wise from any 
other first century Jewish prophet, and it is 
difficult to see how he could have established 
a religion. His message and meaning were dis- 
torted by the early Church, and Pauline Chris- 
tianity became a salvation cult quite similar to 
contemporary mystery religions. We cannot 
know precisely how the early Church grew, for 
Acts is an “idealized story of Christianity’s rise 
and expansion” (p. 53). Ephesians, the Pas- 
torals, I and II Peter, the Letters of John, and 
Jude were all written after their reputed au- 
thors had died — some of them quite long after. 
In the Appendix entitled, “The Leading Ideas 
in the New Testament,” Hutson deals with 
matters pertaining to Biblical theology in a 
manner that resembles similar treatments of a 
generation or more ago. Unlike many recent 
studies of this material, he emphasizes the di- 
versity of doctrine within the New Testament 
and is blind to its unity. 

The chapters which Riddle writes on the 
Hellenistic age, Judaism, the Gentile religious 
background, and the text and translation of the 
New Testament are characterized by great 
clarity and ability to hold the reader’s attention. 
But even here Riddle is not above reproach as 
regards details. Thus, he refers to the First 
Commandment as prohibiting Jewish art (p. 
17). He dates “the fall of the Temple and the 
Jewish nation in the rebellion of 132 A.D.” (p. 
27, where the unsuspecting reader would not 
know that the fall was actually in 135). Again, 
the Council of Nicea is erroneously dated (p. 
201). He refers to “the Chester Beatty Papy- 
rus” (p. 214), as though Mr. Beatty owned only 
one. He is in error when he states (ibid.) that 

there are some two thousand manuscripts of 
the entire New Testament lacking the book of 
Revelation (actually there are not a tenth of 
this number). From his statement regarding 
“some sporadic translation [of the New Testa- 
ment] into the German . . . vernacular” prior 
to Luther’s translation (p. 216), it is clear that 
he is unaware of the fact that Luther’s work 
was preceded by at least eighteen printed edi- 
tions of the complete German Bible. 

Bruce M. Metzger 

The Epistles of St. Clement of Rome 
and St. Ignatius of Antioch, newly trans- 
lated and annotated by James A. Kleist, 
S.J. The Newman Bookshop, Westmin- 
ster, Md., 1946. Pp. ix, 162. $2.50. 

Two professors at the Catholic University of 
America, Johannes Quasten, who was trained 
under the celebrated F. J. Dolger, and Joseph j 
C. Plumpe, a student of Quasten’s, have under- 
taken to edit a monumental collection of the 
chief works of the most important Church Fa- 
thers, whether of Greek, Latin, Syriac, Coptic, 
Armenian, or Arabic provenience. The series, 
entitled Ancient Christian Writers, the Works 
of the Fathers in Translation , is expected to 
embrace about seventy volumes and will offer 
many texts which heretofore have not appeared 
in English translation and a few texts which 
have been discovered only in recent decades. 
Surprisingly enough, although there have been 
several series of the Fathers in English edited 
by Anglican and Protestant scholars, there has 
been no series in English sponsored by Roman 
Catholic scholars. ( 

The volume which initiates this collection con- 
tains, quite appropriately, the oldest patristic f 
documents which Christianity possesses, the 
Epistle of Clement of Rome, written about A.D. 

96, and the seven Epistles of Ignatius of An- 
tioch, written in the early part of the second 
decade of the second Christian century. For the 
task of translating and annotating these epistles 
the general editors have secured the expert 
services of James A. Kleist, S.J., the veteran 
Professor of Classical Languages at St. Louis 
University. Kleist writes brief, crisply phrased 
introductions to each of the ancient authors, 
supplying the basic information necessary for a 
biographic and literary appreciation of their 

The translation is fresh and straightforward. 

It is phrased more in the vernacular than is the 
careful, almost literalistic rendering made by 



J. B. Lightfoot in his memorable edition of 
these two Fathers, and is more accurate than 
Kirsopp Lake’s translation in the Loeb Classical 
Library. Kleist has caught something of the 
balanced dignity of Clement’s diction as well 
as something of the succinct and highly original 
flavor of the Syrian Father. The translator of 
the latter, indeed, is hard put to it to render the 
Ignatian brevitas while avoiding his obscuritas, 
and Kleist prefers to err, if it is to err, on the 
side of making a readable, though perforce 
occasionally periphrastic, version. 

The reader may ask, Are Father Kleist’s 
comments objective or do they reflect a Roman 
bias? Occasionally one can detect an ultramon- 
tane Tendenz. Thus, more than one gratuitous 
interpretation is involved in the statement, “Just 
as Ignatius takes for granted that the Church 
has ‘one altar’ ( iv Ov<n cHrrripiov) and, conse- 
quently, one ‘sacrifice,’ so Clement describes the 
chief function of Church officials as that of 
‘offering gifts of the faithful’ (irpoa^epopTes ra 
8wpa )” (p. 7). Again Kleist makes the ques- 
tionable assertion regarding Ignatius, “To him 
the term ‘Catholic Church’ conveyed the same 
meaning as at the present day” (p. 142). It must 
be confessed, however, that on the whole the 
editor draws restrained and fair judgments on 
mooted points. To take two examples, he resists 
committing the enticing anachronism of calling 
Clement the pope of Rome, referring to him 
merely as the bishop. Nor does he press the in- 
terpretation that Ignatius, in the preface of his 
Epistle to the Romans, alludes to the primacy 
of the bishop of Rome; the editor justly con- 
cludes, “The true meaning of the celebrated 
phrase [‘presiding in love’] is still an open 
question” (p. 134, note 2). 

Kleist is in error when, in discussing Clem- 
ent’s use of the word “presbyter” (pp. 6f.), he 
refers to the passage in 42.4; he must mean 
44.5. An index of English and Greek words 
completes this useful book. 

Bruce M. Metzger 

The Resurrection of Christ: An Essay 
in Biblical Theology, by A. Michael Ram- 
say. Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 
1946. Pp. 194. $1.00. 

Here is a book that drives home the central 
message of the Bible, a message which the peo- 
ple of our generation so deeply need. The author, 
who is the Professor of Divinity in the Univer- 
sity of Durham and Canon of Durham Cathe- 
dral, maintains that all New Testament theology 

and ethics begin with the Resurrection. Calvary 
and the Resurrection are the center of the Gos- 
pel. The Cross did not come as a prelude to the 
Resurrection nor is the Resurrection the finale 
of Calvary. But in the blending of these two 
events we see that “Life through death” is the 
principle of the whole life of Jesus. It is the 
essence of the Christian’s life and the revelation 
of the Eternal God. The crucifixion-resurrection 
teaches us that perfection does not come by 
precept or example. It comes by a personal 
union with Christ — a sharing of His death and 

The earliest Christian sermons dwell upon the 
death and resurrection of Jesus and say nothing 
of His preceding life and ministry. Later the 
whole story of His life was told not as biog- 
raphy but as the drama of God’s act as deliv- 
erer. In the Gospel of John this is particularly 
evident for here the light of Easter shines back 
upon the life of Jesus and the reader feels that 
this light is never absent from the story. 

Canon Ramsay defends convincingly the 
statement that the appearance of the Risen 
Christ to His disciples was not a mystical but 
an external vision. Saul of Tarsus who had had 
mystical experiences distinguishes those from 
his vision of the Risen Christ. The author points 
out the difference between the philosophical be- 
lief in the immortality of the soul and the resur- 
rection. The life of a soul without a body would 
be difficult to imagine. In the Christian there 
will be identity and continuity similar to that 
which the disciples found in the body of the 
Risen Christ. 

We see therefore the central place which this 
message of the Resurrection must ever hold in 
the Christian Gospel. It is the Cross and the 
Resurrection — “Life through death.” This is a 
book which both preachers and laymen will find 
of value, for it brings home the very essence 
of the Gospel Message. 

Frank Sergeant Niles 

Guilt and Redemption, by Lewis Joseph 
Sherrill. John Knox Press, Richmond, 
Va., 1945. Pp. 254. $2.50. 

In the Sprunt Lectures for 1945, Dr. Sherrill, 
the Dean and Professor of Religious Education 
in the Louisville Presbyterian Seminary, deals 
with one of our most urgent contemporary 
human problems : Guilt and its abnormal out- 
comes in individual and collective experience. 
Dr. Sherrill makes it clear that Christianity 
offers not only the most penetrating diagnosis, 

4 6 


but also the most constructive cure for human 
guilt. Psychology and psychiatry may offer 
significant insights into the nature and varieties 
of human behavior, but they can never take the 
place of religion. For this reason the Bible and 
theology are fertile resources upon which to 
draw. The significance of Dr. Sherrill’s contri- 
bution is enhanced by the fact that he happily 
combines a rich clinical knowledge of psychol- 
ogy, with an expert and practical understanding 
of Biblical theology. During the preparation of 
these lectures he was aided by his wife, who is 
a psychiatric social worker, beside a number of 
eminent psychiatrists, and several colleagues of 
the Louisville faculty. The book is thus the re- 
sult of cooperative enterprise. 

In the first chapter entitled, “Where is the 
Battleground?” the author examines the basic 
problem of conflict, in a historical perspective, 
by tracing the classic answers which ancient 
religions and philosophies have offered in their 
attempt to determine the ultimate responsibility 
for human suffering and evil. The second chap- 
ter reviews what modern psychology has to say 
concerning questions of guilt and its cure. Three 
successive chapters analyze guilt as fact and 
feeling, the outcroppings of guilt, and the re- 
lease from guilt. These chapters are notable for 
their carefully-selected and well-told accounts 
of individual cases drawn from clinical experi- 
ence. The closing chapters, entitled respectively, 
the Cross of Christ, the Spirit of Christ, and 
The Body of Christ, show how Christianity 
offers genuine healing to the afflicted. “Chris- 
tianity is a breath-taking religion when one 
senses the enormous sweep of its conceptions, 
the depth of its insights and the daring of its 
proposals” (p. 160). Dr. Sherrill makes these 
conceptions, insights, and proposals luminous by 
a fresh examination of the Biblical vocabulary 
which has a bearing on guilt and its cure. What 
makes the Christian faith always relevant to 
human need and to human experience is the 
fact that it offers men actual freedom from guilt, 
anxiety, and conflict. This it does by enabling 
men who are imprisoned in guilt from which 
they cannot escape by themselves, to enter into 
a new dynamic relationship which transcends 
the trouble-producing relation from which they 
have suffered. This dynamic relation is found 
only in Christ. 

The concrete illustrations sketched from real 
life, as told by the author, not only awaken and 
maintain the interest of the reader, but they 
offer instructive instances of diagnosis and treat- 
ment which have a very practical value for those 
who are engaged in the cure of souls. Christian 

ministers and social workers and all personal 
counsellors will find this restatement of the 
Christian gospel and its redeeming adequacy 
invaluable in their work. 

Howard Tillman Kuist 

They Have Found a Faith, by Marcus 
Bach. Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indian- 
apolis and New York, 1946. Pp. 300. 

For some years Dr. Marcus Bach, a pro- 
fessor in the School of Religion at the Univer- 
sity of Iowa, has been deeply interested in the 
so-called “cults” of latter-day America. In this 
book he gives a lively and interesting account 
of his researches — “ramblings on the roads to 
glory,” as he calls them — among eight of the 
best-known of these groups, namely, Jehovah’s 
Witnesses, The Foursquare Gospel, Spiritual- 
ism, The Oxford Group, Father Divine’s “King- 
doms,” The Baha’i Faith, Unity, and Psychiana. 

This book has much to recommend it. For 
one thing, it is brightly written, with consum- 
mate journalistic skill — as might be expected 
from one who obtained his doctor’s degree in 
creative writing, but as certainly is all too rare 
among religious books. Again, the author has 
carried out his investigations in the most thor- 
oughgoing fashion, so as to get at the essential 
core of each cult which he has examined. More- 
over, his attitude towards these sects is com- 
mendably objective and impartial: he has come 
to the consideration of them, not as a captious 
critic, but rather with a genuine desire to under- 
stand and learn. 

Several reflections are suggested by a reading 
of this book. I. These cults are very widespread 
in their influence. According to Dr. Bach, their 
followers are drawn from the following sources 
— one million every ten years from the regular 
churches, and another million from the dis- 
organized ranks of those whom the churches 
pass by. The fact that these groups are able to 
influence so large a proportion of the popula- 
tion of the United States, and the fact that they 
have begun to extend their operations abroad, 
would seem to indicate that they have become 
a relatively permanent part of the American 
religious scene. 

II. They have been most successful in their 
propagandist campaigns. Practically all of them 
employ with astuteness and efficiency all the 
best modern propaganda techniques, especially 
house-to-house visitation, the printing press, and 
the radio. There can be little doubt that to such 



assiduous and extensive propaganda, much of 
their present influence is due. 

III. The basis of the successful appeal of these 
cults to such a large clientele appears to lie in 
this, that they all — in different ways, to be sure, 
offer some technique, allegedly coming straight 
from God Himself, for meeting and overcoming 
life’s difficulties, material and emotional as well 
as strictly spiritual. 

It is, of course, very easy for members of the 
regular Protestant churches to criticize these 
new sects — for their assumption of infallibility, 
the irrationality and absurdity of some of their 
beliefs, the fact that their leaders do so well 
financially as to make the best of at least this 
world. But it would be more fruitful and profit- 
able for such church members to ask themselves 
this question : what is it that these cults have 
that the old-line churches do not seem to have?. 
It may be that in seeking to answer this ques- 
tion, the regular churches would learn some- 
thing that would make their own message more 
vital and effective in present-day America. 

Norman V. Hope 

Great Christian Books , by Hugh Mar- 
tin. The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 
1946. Pp. 1 18. $1.50. 

In this volume Dr. Hugh Martin, Editor of 
the S.C.M. Press in Great Britain, discusses 
seven classic works, all of which purport to de- 
scribe and illustrate the Christian life. These 
works are Augustine’s “Confessions,” Samuel 
Rutherfurd’s “Letters,” Brother Lawrence’s 
“Practice of the Presence of God,” John Bun- 
yan’s “Pilgrim’s Progress,” William Law’s 
“Serious Call,” William Carey’s “Enquiry into 
the Obligations of Christians to use Means for 
the Conversion of the Heathens,” and Robert 
Browning’s “Ring and the Book.” These works 
were written at different times in Christian 
history: the earliest, Augustine’s “Confessions,” 
dates from the early fifth century, while the 
most recent, Browning’s dramatic monologue, 
is a nineteenth century production. The authors 
of these works vary widely in their churchman- 
ship : Augustine and Brother Lawrence were 
devout Roman Catholics, Samuel Rutherfurd 
was a Scottish Presbyterian of the Covenanting 
school, Bunyan and Carey were English Bap- 
tists, Law was a non-juring Anglican, while 
Browning, though brought up under noncon- 
formist auspices, sat loose to any kind of sec- 
tarian affiliation. Composed by such differing 
men at such different times, these works inevi- 

tably differ in form, in style, and even, to some 
extent, in content. But they are all at one in 
their witness to the grace of God in Jesus 
Christ, which alone makes a man a Christian; 
in their intense insistence that the Christian life, 
if it is to be properly lived, demands self-sacri- 
fice; and in their testimony to the fact that a 
life lived for God in Christ, no matter what 
difficulties may confront it, is a joyful victory. 

The object of Dr. Martin in publishing these 
studies was, of course, to send his readers back 
to the works themselves. In the judgment of the 
present reviewer, his interesting and balanced 
treatment is well calculated to achieve this 
obj ect. 

Norman Victor Hope 

The Theology of John Wesley, by Wil- 
liam R. Cannon. Abingdon-Cokesbury, 
New York, 1946. Pp. 273. $2.50. 

The very title of this important book may 
cause some to smile, for John Wesley has not 
been generally taken seriously as a theologian 
even by those who have taken his name. This 
obviously is a superficial view of the great 
evangelical preacher, and it is high time that 
a thoroughgoing analysis of Wesley’s theologi- 
cal presuppositions be attempted. The author is 
well qualified for this task; he is Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Church History at Emory University, 
and he has mastered all the important and vo- 
luminous writings of his subject as well as much 
relevant material relating to Reformation and 
post-Reformation thought. 

The book is divided into two parts, the first — 
in six chapters — dealing with “The Develop- 
ment and Formulation of the Doctrine of Jus- 
tification,” and the second — in four chapters — 
treating the “Theological and Ethical Concepts 
Arising from the Doctrine of Justification.” 
This division of the theme indicates that for 
Professor Cannon justification by faith is the 
clue and the key to Wesley’s theology. Although 
this may surprise those who have always as- 
sociated “perfectionism” with Wesley’s unique 
distinction as a religious thinker, the emphasis 
on justification serves to relate Wesley wit! 
Luther and Calvin, and this is a most necessan 
and enlightening approach. 

The discussion is not burdened by the weight 
of biographical detail, though the author utilizes 
such incidents as Wesley’s Georgia experiment 
and the Aldersgate experience of 1738 to point 
up the significance of Wesley’s changing theo- 
logical views. For example, it is shown that 



Wesley moved from the ambiguous synergism 
of eighteenth century Anglicanism, with its em- 
phasis upon God’s grace and man’s responsibil- 
ity, to a more consistent Reformation definition 
of justification as God’s free grace. The influ- 
ence of the Moravians in general and of Zinzen- 
dorf in particular is duly acknowledged, and the 
author takes pains to show the close parallelism 
between Wesley at this point and the Reform- 

Obviously, however, Wesley and the Reform- 
ers, particularly Calvin, parted company on 
some basic points. For Calvin, according to 
Dr. Cannon, God’s grace was restricted and 
limited, while for Wesley it was free for all. 
This distinction is not minimized and is seen 
to be the point of departure for much of the 
Calvinistic-Arminian disputes of later days. 

But the fundamental thesis of the book is 
somewhat problematical in the light of the short 
but provocative conclusion which intimates that 
Wesley took justification by faith as “the in- 
dispensable means to holiness.” Thus, man is 
justified by God’s free grace which in turn en- 
ables him to become holy in order to deserve 
his salvation. This surely is not what the Re- 
formers meant by justification, and it leaves 
the reader wondering, therefore, if justification 
(rather than holiness or perfectionism) is after 
all the essence of Wesley’s theology. 

Apart, however, from criticisms which can 
be made, this book deserves a wide reading. 
Methodists owe it to themselves and to their 
progenitor to grapple with these theological is- 
sues, and non-Methodists will gain a new in- 
sight and appreciation for Wesley. One can 
safely predict that this volume will become a 
classic source on the subject and has, accord- 
ingly, something more than transitory or con- 
temporary significance. 

Hugh Thomson Kerr, Jr. 

Religion in America, by Willard L. 
Sperry. Macmillan, New York, 1946. Pp. 
305. $2.50. 

The reading of this book will enable us, in 
a familiar phrase, “To see oursel’s as others 
see us!” The author, who is the well known 
Dean of the Harvard Divinity School, was in- 
vited a year ago by the Cambridge (England) 
University Press to prepare a volume on the 
American religious scene as one in a series of 
studies for British readers on the general theme, 
“American Life and Institutions.” The book 
was so well received that it was not long before 
a demand for an American edition was raised 

by many in this country who wanted to know 
what Dean Sperry was telling his British friends 
about American religion. 

This is an opportunity, therefore, not only 
to check on the accuracy of this report but also 
to gain a fresh survey of our complicated re- 
ligious history by seeing it recounted in an ele- 
mentary fashion for those who may be hearing 
it for the first time. The plan of the book is 
simple but comprehensive. It begins and ends 
with certain general reflections of rare value 
and suggestiveness. The bulk of the discussion 
is divided into chapters on Colonial religion, 
the Church and the State, Denominations, the 
Sects, Theology, Religious Education, the Ne- 
gro Churches, Catholicism, and Church Union. 
There are also eight Appendices of a statistical 
and technical nature that give this study sub- ' 
stance and authority. 

In many respects, the most important section 
of Dean Sperry’s analysis has to do with the 
traditional American principle of the separation 
of Church and State. This, it will be recognized, 
is not only a unique feature of American re- 
ligious life but an unusually difficult subject to 
present in an understandable way to British 
readers. The author shows the reasons for our 
principle of separation (in large part it was a 
practical expedient rather than a theological pre- 
supposition), and while appreciative of its con- 
sequent values, he also indicates certain em- 
barrassing and unfortunate implications which 
have come to plague both our political and re- 
ligious life. No religious subject is of more 
contemporary importance than this particular 
issue, and these chapters alone are well worth 
serious study. 

A word may be said of the literary character 
of this report. The style is free, conversational, 
intimate, and pleasing. One reads here familiar 
historical subjects described with such urbane I 
understanding that they are lifted out of the 
usual academic and historical level and made 
fascinating and profitable. The discussion is 
punctuated at frequent intervals with humorous J 
and anecdotal asides which make the record 
live and sparkle. The theological approach is, 
as one might expect, not extreme or indeed j 
even clearly defined, and for some this may be 
a weakness of the book. On the controversial 
matters of theology and history, Dean Sperry 
makes no pretense of original solution but con- 
tents himself with the best secondary sources 
and the desire to mediate, adjudicate, and inform 
those who wish to learn the basic rudiments of 
our American religious heritage. 

Hugh Thomson Kerr, Jr. 



Priesthood in Action, by Wallace E. 
Conkling, Bishop of Chicago. Morehouse- 
Gorham, New York, 1945* $2.00. 

Two of the ablest books about parish leader- 
ship come from Anglo-Catholic divines. The 
other volume, Parish Administration, is by 
Don F. Fenn, a rector in Baltimore. A reading 
of Bp. Conkling’s work will show why he op- 
posed union with us Presbyterians. The read- 
ing will likewise bring out principles that un- 
dergird parish work where the theology is more 
distinctly Protestant. 

One of the ablest sections deals with Holy 
Matrimony. Here the Bishop discusses “Things 
that Wreck Marriage” : Money, or the lack 
of it; Family Interference, by the in-laws; and 
Religion, especially marriage with a Romanist. 
He also sets forth “Things that Help to Make 
a Marriage” : Being Play-mates, Work-mates, 
and Worship-mates. The suggestions about men’s 
work seem equally sane, and somewhat novel. 

Presbyterian pastors should read with care 
what the Bishop says about the need for public 
services at different hours every week: “Many 
clergy are content with much too small a num- 
ber of regular weekly services. It is not possible 
to provide for the needs of the congregation by 
two services on Sunday, one at eight (a.m.) 
and one at eleven, and one mid-week communion 
on Wednesday or Thursday at ten.” Again, 
“People too rarely find the clergy at prayer in 

In short, the Bishop would have excelled as 
a professor of practical theology. He can say 
much in little. For instance, with reference to 
women’s guilds, “Many parish quarrels have 
originated in the parish house, and few before 
the Altar of God.” What he says accords with 
his theology, which is not always my own. Still 
I wish that most of his practical counsels would 
prevail in many a parish where the work suf- 
fers for lack of wise leadership. 

Andrew W. Blackwood 

The Public Worship of God, by Henry 
Sloan Coffin. Westminster Press, Phila- 
delphia, 1946. Pp. 205 plus index. $2.00. 

The president emeritus of Union Theological 
Seminary, New York, has given us the fruit 
of his rich and mature thought upon public 
worship in this source book. The volume is 
frankly written for “those in the tradition of 
the Reformed Churches. That tradition,” writes 
Dr. Coffin, “is both Catholic and Evangelical. 

It embraces the worship of the early Church, 
East and West, and that of the medieval Church 
to the Reformation, when the effort was made 
to cleanse it from corruption by submitting it 
to the Word of God.” That tradition was re- 
shaped by the Reformers, and somewhat impov- 
erished by their successors. 

Dr. Coffin indicates the criteria by which true 
Reformed worship may be restored. Quoting 
Dr. R. S. Simpson with evident approval, he 
continues, “The Presbyterian Church has a great 
opportunity today to serve the Catholic Church 
of God. We have much to learn concerning 
worship, but we have this to give in the discus- 
sion of the problem, that our tradition in wor- 
ship is the combination of reverence and free- 
dom, and that we are in a position to take ad- 
vantage of the gains that come from spontaneity 
in worship and from the form and order of a 
dignified liturgy.” This book is a humble attempt 
to help sister Churches to improve this oppor- 
tunity to serve the Catholic Church of Christ, 
and “to render their worship more worthy of 
Him to whom it is offered.” 

The first chapter presents a high conception 
of worship as “the awed and glad spontaneous 
response of the spirit of man confronted by the 
God of Christian revelation — the God of crea- 
tion and redemption.” Following this grand in- 
troduction to the subject, Dr. Coffin discusses 
the theological bases of worship, the story of 
the various rituals, the place of the ritual and 
ceremonial in worship, the composition of pub- 
lic prayers, and the place of the Word and 
Sacrament in worship. Two chapters deal with 
children and worship, and Church union and 

There are many interesting issues raised in 
this book about ceremonial, preaching, the Sac- 
raments, Church architecture, the composition 
of prayers, hymn selection and singing, choral 
music in worship, and other matters. 

Dr. Coffin treats these issues with a firm 
straightforwardness which is based upon sound 
knowledge and a sense of what is right. He 
objects, for instance, to solos in public worship. 
He does not like the word “auditorium” used 
for the sanctuary. He objects to an altar in a 
Reformed Church, or a Communion table placed 
against the wall in connection with a reredos. 
Choir music is in many congregations a “serious 
menace” to common worship, for it is often 
showy and sensational. He does not like the 
words of the hymns placed between the bars 
of music in our hymnals. He favors shorter 
“pastoral” prayers and sermons that are a part 
of worship. His chapter on children and worship 



contains an excellent list of suggestions for 
children’s sermons. Dr. Coffin feels strongly 
that the little ones ought to come to worship, 
and that sermons for them can be made inter- 
esting for them — as well as for their parents. 
His final appeal is for the Church to recover its 
own solidarity. “Public worship, when through 
the congregation present, the Church Universal 
offers itself to God and receives Him in His 
fullness, is always a reminder that it is His will 
and the prayer of Christ that His followers 
should be manifestly one that the world may 
believe in Him.” 

The treatment of worship is authoritative 
and scholarly. The author is writing about a 
theme which is dear to his heart, and upon 
which he is a master. The expression is warm 
and contagious. Any pastor who reads this book 
will want to make the divine services which 
he conducts genuine and orderly. In the light j 
of this high conception of worship one wonders 
how much worship there is in the evangelical 
Churches of our country. 

E. G. Homrighausen 


The best way to keep the Bulletin mail- 
ing list up to date is for each Alumnus to 
send to the Seminary a notice of his 
change of address. A brief statement in 
reference to his change of pastorate or 
other work would be helpful in making 

the Alumni Notes more interesting. While 
it is not possible to give details regarding 
the activities of each Alumnus, classmates 
are always glad to read the brief items 
in the Alumni Notes and the Seminary 
urges the Alumni to cooperate. 


It has been decided not to continue the 
Summer Term, which has been held dur- 
ing most of the war period and also dur- 
ing the summer of 1946. However, in 
compliance with the request made by a 
large group of war veterans, a twelve 
week session will be held extending from 
May 27 to August 15, during which time 

a course in the Elements of Hebrew will 
be taught. The class, under the direction 
of Dr. Charles T. Fritsch, and employing 
the inductive method, will meet twice a 
day. The men will read, think, eat, sleep 
and drink Hebrew and complete a full 
year’s course in twelve weeks. 




By Unknown Ways, by W. G. Branch. 
The Westminster Press, Philadelphia, 
1946. Pp. 172. $1.50. 

The author is a Londoner who for over forty 
years was in the Baptist Ministry in the Mid- 
lands of England. In this little book he presents 
the records of people who have soared above 
the barriers of painful handicaps, and by so do- 
ing have enabled countless others to live more 

The Life and Work of George Irving , 
Edited by David R. Porter. Associated 
Press, New York, 1945. Pp. 146. 

A collection of contributions from many col- 
leagues of the late George Irving, this book 
is a tribute from friends who acknowledge Ir- 
ving’s services to the Student Association Move- 
ment, the Y.M.C.A., and other organizations. 
Among the authors of the volume are John R. 
Mott, William J. Hutchins, Robert E. Speer, 
Otto A. Piper, and Samuel McCrea Cavert. 

Vedanta for the Western World, Ed- 
ited by Christopher Isherwood. The Mar- 
cel Rodd Co., Hollywood, 1945. $3.75. 

Contributors to this volume include Gerald 
Heard, Aldous Huxley, Swami Prabhavananda, 
Frederick Manchester, Guido Ferrando, Chris- 
topher Wood, John Van Druten, Swami Vive- 
kananda, the editor, and others. The core of 
the teaching here presented may be summed up 
as a philosophy which accepts all religions. It 
is a form of Vedanta, based in the Vedas, to 
which the group of participating intellectuals 
give their adherence. 

Key to Japan, by Willard Price. The 
John Day Company, New York, 1946. 

pp- 3 ° 9 - $3-50- 

With more than a hundred sketches, and in 
direct style, the author tells what the Army Oc- 
cupation in Japan, as well as Americans at 
home, need to know, if Japan is to be made a 
safe neighbor for the future. 

My Africa, by Mbonu Ojike. The John 
Day Company, New York, 1946. Pp. 350. 
$ 3 - 75 - 

Africa is revealed here by light from within 
by a young Nigerian student in the United 
States. He tells of his own life, and the cus- 
toms, the ancient culture, and the new hopes of 
the African peoples. The first part of the book 
is autobiographical, the second, a clear and 
rounded picture of Africa, its background and 
political aspirations. 

The Sikhs, by John Clark Archer. 
Princeton University Press, 1946. Pp. 
353 - $ 3 - 75 - 

This study of the Sikhs, in their relation to 
Hindus, Moslems, and Christians, is from the 
pen of the Professor of Comparative Religion 
in Yale University. The author’s knowledge of 
India’s religions and cultures, and his long 
years of teaching in America have enabled him 
to write a distinguished book in the field. A 
dozen excellent photographs, a new translation 
of Nanak’s book of psalms, and intimate knowl- 
edge of the source material shed lustre on the 

Heirs of the Prophets, by Samuel M. 
Zwemer. Moody Press, Chicago, 1946. 
Pp. 137. $2.00. 

This is a study of the religious leaders of 
the Moslem world by the Professor of the His- 
tory of Religion and Christian Missions, Emeri- 
tus, Princeton Theological Seminary. The eight- 
een illustrations show conditions prevailing in 
the Islamic countries where loss of political in- 
fluence often leads those in religious control to 
tighten their “priestly” grip on the people. 

The Messenger: The Life of Moham- 
med, by R. V. C. Bodley. Doubleday and 
Company, Inc., New York, 1946. Pp. 368. 

The author has written a biography of Mo- 
hammed for the nonspecialist. He has tried to 
tell the story in a manner that conforms to mod- 
ern biographical technique. He has been in- 
spired more by his observations in the Islamic 
world, and in desert life, than by standard books 
of reference. The result is a book more read- 
able than it is reliable. 



India Today — An Introduction To In- 
dian Politics, by Raleigh Parkin. The 
John Day Company, New York, 1946. 
Pp- 387- $3-75- 

The author’s aim is to provide an elementary- 
introduction to Indian politics. The social, eco- 
nomic, and governmental structure, the politi- 
cal groupings, the Indian states, and India’s 
external relations are treated. 

The Source of Human Good, by Henry 
N. Wieman. The University of Chicago 
Press, Chicago, 1946. Pp. 312. $3.50. 

The underlying thought by which this volume 
is governed is that human good springs from 
the relationship of man to his fellows and to his 
environment. The propositions formulated are 
in keeping with the trends prevailing in modern 
naturalism. The author is Professor of Chris- 
tian Theology at the University of Chicago. 

Edward J. Jurji 



With the exception of two, the articles 
in this issue of the Bulletin were written 
by members of the faculty. “The Church, 
Preaching and Theology” was the address 
delivered by Dr. Bela Vasady at the Sum- 
mer Commencement of the Seminary in 
August, 1946. 

Bela Vasady is Professor of Dogmatic 
Theology at the Reformed Theological 
Seminary, Debrecen, Hungary. He has 
been Visiting Lecturer in Theology at the 
Seminary during the first term of the cur- 
rent year. Dr. Vasady is an alumnus of 
Princeton Seminary, having received the 

degree of Master of Theology here in 
1925. He is a member of the Administra- 
tive Committee of the Evangelical Church 
in Hungary, and is touring the United 
States in behalf of that Church. 

“Our High Calling” was the address 
given by Dr. Stuart Nye Hutchison at 
the opening of the Seminary in Septem- 
ber, 1946. Dr. Hutchison is pastor of the 
East Liberty Presbyterian Church, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. He is a Trustee of 
the Seminary and a former Moderator of 
the General Assembly.